Noah' Flood Disastor

Old Testament's Catastrophism
Christian Science & Archeology
The Flood of "Noah" - Chapter 1
by Donald W. Patten

The Flood of Noah - Chapter 1 - W. Patten
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It looks like a shipwreck!
Our  ExcursionJune  1990
Our Gang
The  Date
The  Descending  Climb
The  Metal  Detection  Equipment
Indentifying the "Problem"!
The  Problem  Clarifies  (in Part)
Two - Gravity  Event!
Floating  Uphill  Versus  Downhill

Cultural Evidence

 About the author Donald W. Patten & his scientifically written book!
The flood of Noah
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Flood of Noah
Chapter 1...

Donald W. Patten ©

It looks like a shipwreck!

And the Ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains (or highlands) of Ararat. (Genesis 8:4)

In August, 1883, a small volcanic island in Indonesia named Krakatoa erupted. The eruption created a 'monstrous' cavity in the cone, into which the walls of the belaching volcano collapsed. That collapse of volcano walls produced a series of massive ocean waves in the Java Sea. Those tidal waves uplifted small boats, anchored at dock side, and swept some of them inland up to 2 miles. The boats rode waves cresting at 50 feet high.

This is what the 19th century called "a catastrophe."  The waves were not "tidal" in the sense that they were caused by a passing celestial body. Lacking an appropriate word in English, the Japanese word "tsunami" was adopted.

In contrast, Noah's Ark was swept upward over 6,000 feet. It was swept onward over 550 miles. These pair of distances, to a geographer, is what is so intriguing about finding the remains of this vessel. It is found in the most unlikely of places, the highlands of semi-arid Inner Asia. How this vessel survived the rapid and stressful journey is similarly intriguing to a marine engineer.  Apparently its size and buoyancy helped. So did careful planning, quality carpentry, and extraordinary preparation at its graving dock, the construction site.

Our  ExcursionJune  1990

David Fasold claimed to have identified subsurface iron in discrete locations, or spots within a boat-shaped formation. The place is 5 miles southeast of Dogbayazit, Turkey. The iron locations or spots, over where the frequency generator located iron, were red flagged.  The red flags assumed patterns of lines. He then measured the distances of the horizontal lines. The longest dimension, from bow to stern, was 515 feet.

     The Genesis account of Noah's Flood says that the dimensions is that the Ark was shaped like a long box, 300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide and 30 cubits high. Fasold, a seaman, claimed that a box-shaped Ark with a length/depth ratio of 10:1 would capsize, like a rolling log.  Moreover he claimed that an Ark built of any kind of wood (including "gopher-wood") could not survive the stresses of wave crests and troughs. Only vessels manufactured of aluminum or steel can handle such stresses. His analysis, on the surface, seemed reasonable.

     In May l989, Fasold was invited to come to Seattle for a lecture.  We (Donald Patten and Windsor) were giving a series of seven lectures on Earth history at a Baptist church, and Fasold was invited to give one of those lectures. He did this and he presented his sketches, his graphic printouts and his story. He stayed three days, and was questioned at length.  Grilled might be a better description!

     From this 'grilling', it was determined first that Fasold was a "straight arrow," a thoroughly honest person. Secondly it was determined that his background as a seaman (10 years in the merchant marine, part of which he served as a ships officer) and as a ship salver (15 years in the Caribbean operating out of Key West) compensated for his lack of academic achievements in this marine matter. In seafaring issues, he is definitely "an old salt."

     In early 1990, Fasold was planning on taking three tour groups to the alleged Ark Site. We were two of eleven who signed up for the first tour, scheduled for mid June. The other two tours, scheduled for August and September l990, never occurred because of the Iraq-Kuwait crisis. The Turkish military commandeered all aircraft including civilian flights. We considered ourselves fortunate to have been scheduled for the first tour, when armies were still at peace.

David Fasold published a book in l989, The Ark of Noah. He claimed to have located the remains of Noah's Ark! (His book was published by Wynwood Press, (hard cover, in two printings, and was a l989 best seller. In l990 it was published in Europe in English under a similar title. The book came out as a paperback in 1991, published by Knightsbridge Publishers. This version also sold out quickly).

Our Gang

 Our tour group was ten in number.  One, Marvin Luckerman, editor of Catastrophism and Ancient History, a semi-annual periodical, had a passport expiration problem and thus "missed the boat."  Our group of ten included Fasold, ourselves, Erma Windsor (Snohomish, Wn.), Bill Taylor (amateur archaeologist, Albuquerque), Drs. Melvin and Phil Carkl (pathologist and dentist, Gainesville, Fla.), Gil Smith (evangelist, Fredericksburg Texas, Andre Iseli and Carlin Lehr, both of Sandy, Oregon.  Iseli is owner and Lehr is supervisor of irrigation at the Iseli Nursery. Their interest was botanical, to bring back a sample of the rare amomum plant which grows only near the Ark Site. Amomum, related to the iris, is reputed by the Kurds to have life lengthening powers.

     Our gang congregated at Istanbul, and proceeded by air to Ankara and then to Van, and on by bus to Dogubayazit.  Dogubayazit is the easternmost town of Eastern Turkey. Dogubayazit, the local hub, is located 7 miles from the Fasold Formation, the Fasold Ark Site, and is l2 miles from the site of the Anchor Stones.  Also, Dogubayazit is  5 miles north of the Iranian border and is only l2 miles southwest of the famed Mt. Ararat.  Soviet Armenia is 30 miles distant, to the northeast.

      Figure 1 illustrates where Dogubayazit and the Fasold Formation are in Eastern Turkey, also known as Eastern Anatolia.  Figure 2 illustrates how far this Ark Site is from a major ocean, such as the Indian Ocean to the south.  We were indeed in the highland country of remote Inner Asia. (Figures  1  &  2)

     Our gang also included Dilaver, a Turkish guide from Erzerum, whom Fasold had used in each of his 6 or 7 past trips to Eastern Turkey. Dilaver was very helpful in a variety of ways, especially in interacting with the locals, the Kurds at the Ark Site, in Dogubayazit, at the Anchor Site (Kazan) and in the city of Van.

 The  Date   

As it happened, we motored from Van to Dogubayazit on Saturday, June 20, a journey of about 100 miles, across the relatively bleak terrain, up to 8,500 feet elevation, of Eastern Turkey, where the leading industries are making rugs and herding of goats and sheep. Herds of goats and/or sheep always means no forests or trees. (They graze on tender sapling shoots)  The elevation ranged between 5,500 feet and 9,000.  The landscape was reminiscent of Utah and Western Colorado.

    On the morning of June 2l, the longest day of the year, we photographed shimmering Mt. Ararat at sunrise from our  third floor lanai (at the Isfahan, formerly Ararat Hotel).  The sunrise scene brought to mind the dawn of a new day, and of new ideas, including the idea of David Fasold as to the location of the remains of Noah's Ark. How solid would be his supporting claims for scientific and cultural evidence?

Illustration source from Anchor Stone International   (Persons are not the same as in this story!)

At approximately 8:30 am, we visited the site of the "Chip Stone", near the village of Kazan. (More about this later in this chapter).   About 9:30, we motored 2 or 3 miles to visit the site of the 11 anchor stones, at the edge of  Kazan. These unique stones appeared like huge, oversized anchor stones from ancient Phoenician vessels. They were inspected, measured and noted meticulously.

     The elevation was measured by altimeter. The height, width and thickness of the anchor  stones were measured by a metal tape measure, as were the various diameters of the holes at their tops. Their weight was estimated by using the standard engineering table weight for average rock, which was multiplied by the volume. The roundness of the holes, and the curvature of the hole chutes were examined with a magnifying glass, calipers and a ruler.  A compass and a recording tablet were among other items of hardware employed. (Our intrepid engineer, examining the minute details, was the very picture of Sherlock Holmes except for the deer hunter cap.)

     At noon time, at about the minute as well as the day of the summer solstice, our bus arrived at the Visitor's Center, some 7 miles southeast of Dogubayazit and 2 miles north of the Iranian border. This was built in the summer of 1989.  The Turkish Department of Antiquities has concluded and recognized the Fasold Ark Site as a national park and an ancient historical site.

     Thus, a 3,000 sq. ft. building, overlooking the site, was constructed and a two-lane gravel road was built to get visitors and researchers there. The Turkish name for this location is "Nu'hun Gemisi," (Noah's Vessel). The site appears on Turkish government maps published since 1990.

     The Visitor's Center is perhaps 1,000 feet distant, horizontally, to the west, from the alleged Ark Site. And it is perhaps 200 feet higher. We lunched at the Visitor's Center and observed from afar the Fasold Formation, the alleged Ark Site. As we viewed it, we bore in mind the unfounded claims of various Ark hunters of Mt. Ararat persuasion, claims long on talk and totally lacking in evidence! Over the last 15 or 20 years, the Mt. Ararat Ark 'hunters', without a scrap of honest evidence, have asserted that the remains of the Ark must lie somewhere high in the zone of flowing glaciers, over 14,000 feet above sea level. Keeping such recent history in mind, we told ourselves, "Don and Sam, keep your guards up."  Missourians, traditionally, have to be shown. Kansans and Montanans (which we are) also have to be shown.

     From a distance of 1,000 feet, we viewed 'Fasold's' Ark Formation for some 45 minutes, lunches in hand, and asked ourselves, "Is this really the Ark Site." Our momentary answer was, "We are from the West, and like Missourians, we have to be shown. From what we saw at that point in time, we felt perhaps it is and perhaps it isn't.  We were familiar with Fasold's book, 'The Ark of Noah', and his experiences. Nevertheless, the issue was inconclusive. Figure 3   A  Picture  of  the  Shipwreck

The  Descending  Climb...

     Permission was needed to go down upon the Ark Site itself, and our gang had permission through our guide, David Fasold. We began the slow and steep descent, at an angle of between 25 to 30 degrees, down and easterly from the Visitor's Center to an arroyo. Youth was in the lead. The arroyo was crossed with a some difficulty; criss-crossing cracks occurred there from 1 to 2 feet wide and 6 to 10 feet deep lacing the arroyo. Footing was hazardous, especially for the one lady in our group (Erma Windsor). After crossing the arroyo, there was a short climb, horizontally, of perhaps 250 feet. We were at the lower end, the bow end of Fasold's alleged Ark Site!

    The Ark Formation itself is uplifted 10 to 15 feet, sharply above the adjacent hillside slopes. The edges of the formation are abrupt, with 70 to 80 degree angled drop offs. The walls, forming the edge of the formation completely around it, are 10 to 15 feet high.

     In 1985, Fasold was the first to measure and record the length and the width of the formation, which he measured  down to the inch, carefully. The length of the formation was 5l5 feet, 9 inches which is 300 cubits. The width at maximum beam was measured at 138 feet, 4 inches feet which is 80 cubits. This assumes the Babylonian cubit, 20.6 inches. Thus, the 300-cubit length was, but the 80-cubit width was not in conformity with the Genesis record, IF maximum beam is what the Genesis account Genesis refers to.

     We found two log ends high up on the stern end, on sides opposite each other. They were in a state of semi-prettification. We observed what looked like a series of knobs on both sides of the bow, spaced regularly, about every 8 feet. They appeared to be vestiges of ancient rail constructs.

 The  Metal  Detection  Equipment

     After about 1 hour of our gang touring the site generally, Fasold unpacked the various pieces of equipment, which he assembled into a metal detector. He had brought this heavy equipment via air from California at some expense and inconvenience. Packing the equipment from the Visitor's Center down to the Ark Site and back was done by Kurdish locals under the supervision of Dilaver.

     From his book, The Ark of Noah, we read of Fasold's theory that there had been an iron age before the Flood. (See Genesis 4:22 about Tubal-Cain's foundry.) Fasold activated the metal detector, using his body as a conductor. It had two metal rods about 5 feet long on either side. It also had two beryllium rods, which shifted to a crossing position each time iron metal was detected. Also, as iron was detected below Fasold's body, the detector beeped, while the beryllium rods crossed. 

     Fasold then placed red rods, or flags at each spot where he stood as the metal detector indicated iron there under. The red flags were positioned 18 to 21 inches apart over the iron. The red flags began to merge into lines. Other lines began to merge into parallel lines, forming a skeleton of an ancient artifact. The lines that  developed were parallel, like longitude lines, to the bow-to-stern axis. The lines seem to be remnants of ancient deteriorated wooden beam or bulkhead lines.

     In addition, at two locations, which Fasold considered the back end of the "Moon Pool," to the aft but near center line, the metal detector just sang. In fact, the metal detector sang from 1000 feet at the Visitor's Center when pointed at the formation.  It appears that at aft end of the Moon Pool, there had been some heavy iron equipment, used in association with the ropes and anchor stones. They may be rusted, deteriorated capstans or Spanish windlasses. Perhaps they were from equipment used to reel in the ropes attached to the Anchor Stones, using cattle power or possibly horse power.

     Earlier that day, at the Anchor Stones site, we had seen large stones, flat on two sides, with rounded holes with radii of curvature, at the top. Those holes varied in diameter from 3 to 4.5 inches, with the larger holes always being in the larger, heavier stones. The radius of the hole varied with the square of the estimated weight of the anchor stone. Interestingly, one of the stones had a Babylonian zigurat carved on one side. It appears that the pre-flood civilization had a sophisticated rope-making industry!

      In addition, a few iron pieces have been found which, when assayed, indicate an alloy with manganese. (No iron spots were found outside the formation). Such an alloy suggests electrolysis was known in the pre-flood civilization!  We must not assume they were knuckle-dragging Neanderthals, as some anthropologists have suggested!

NOTE:  (This part is added!) The human race yet retained much of its early vigor. But a few generations had passed since Adam had access to the tree which was to prolong life; and man's existence was still measured by centuries! Had that long-lived people, with their rare powers to plan and execute, devoted themselves to the service of G-D, they would have made their Creator's name a praise in the earth, and would have answered the purpose for which He gave them life. But they failed to do this. The people were granted the opportunity of reaching a high standard of moral and intellectual attainment.They possessed great physical and mental strength, and their advantages for acquiring both religious and scientific knowledge were unrivaled. It is a mistake to suppose that because they lived to a great age their minds matured late; their mental powers were early developed, and those who cherished the fear of God and lived in harmony with His will continued to increase in knowledge and wisdom throughout their life. Could illustrious scholars of our time be placed in contrast with men of the same age who lived before the Flood, they would appear as greatly inferior in mental as in physical strength. As the years of man have decreased, and his physical strength has diminished, so his mental capacities have lessened. There are men who now apply themselves to study during a period of from twenty to fifty years, and the world is filled with admiration of their attainments. But how limited are these acquirements in comparison with those of men whose mental and physical powers were developing for centuries! It is true that the people of modern times have the benefit of the attainments of their predecessors. The men of masterly minds, who planned and studied and wrote, have left their work for those who follow. But even in this respect, and so far as merely human knowledge is concerned, how much greater the advantages of the men of that olden time {Pre-flood)! They had among them for hundreds of years him who was formed in God's image, whom the Creator Himself pronounced "good"--the man whom God had instructed in all the wisdom pertaining to the material world!

     We are serious readers of the Book of Job, and especially of the part, chapters 38-41.  Here, after several excruciating, stressful weeks, the beleaguered Job had two  revelations from the Lord of the themes of creation in a rapid sequence. Job's response after the first revelation was one of abject humility. Job's response after the second revelation was, "I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear: but now mine eye seeth thee."  (Job 42:5)  Job was overwhelmed with awe!

     So it was that we had heard from Fasold, lecturing in person, and had read his book about the iron spots, numbering an estimated 5,400  at the Ark Site. We had read about the tear-drop shape, and the Biblical dimensions of the artifact.  But now we had seen the iron spots as they were being located by sophisticated equipment once again.

     Like Job, we were overwhelmed. Since no iron spots (none at all) were found outside of the Ark-shaped formation, our conclusion, beyond any shadow of any doubt, was that this formation contained the remains of a shipwreck, a very ancient one indeed.  The location was at one of the most unlikely of places on Earth, it was true, 6,300 feet above sea level, and 2,000 miles from the nearest ocean.  Nevertheless, there it was, beneath our feet, for our eyes to fathom and for our minds to feast upon.  We were treading ground where Noah once trod. However, the evidence we found indicates only that it was a man-made artifact, with Genesis-like dimensions.  There was no name-plate saying, "Mfg. by M. Noah & Sons."

Indentifying the "Problem"!

     We shall identify the problem of how the Ark got there by first assessing where it ended up, and secondly, from where the Ark was built, its graving dock. This will provide the horizontal distance it floated horizontally, in miles. Simultaneously, this will provide a most interesting calculation, the vertical distance the Ark was uplifted, the elevation differential. Thirdly, we will discover in what direction it was moved from graving dock to wreck site.

     (1)  THE END OF THE JOURNEY.  The remains of the an huge vessel indeed are found! As mentioned above, we did not find a nameplate, saying in English or in Akkadian or in Sumerian cuneiform, "Manufactured by M. Noah & Sons."  The location is 7 miles southeast of Dogubayazit. And its location is also l8 miles distant, and is but one degree lacking of being due south of Mt. Ararat. This location is at latitude 39 deg. 26 min. N., and at longitude 44 deg. 15 min. E. by modern geographical coordinates. This location identifies where some ancient vessel, 300 cubits long, finally rested and subsequently decayed. For working purposes, let us assume that the decayed vessel indeed was Noah's Ark.  (If it wasn't, it was someone else's vessel!)

     (2)  THE BEGINNING OF THE JOURNEY.  In the last 125 years, there have been found no less than nine flood accounts on ancient cuneiform, on clay tablets with a wedge-type writing.  Three are Sumerian.  Three are in Old Babylonian (Akkadian) and three flood accounts are in Assyrian. Several flood stories are in fragmentary form. They appear to date backward from 1000 B.C.E. Possibly some are as old as 2000 B.C.E. And almost certainly, they are copies (exact or inexact) of even older cuneiform accounts.

     The most complete of these cuneiform flood stories is in Assyrian, The Epic of Gilgamesh In it, Gilgamesh, a post flood city potentate or lord, was interested in the idea of, and gaining eternal life. It was suggested he look up Noah, then still alive, living at or near the Mediterranean coast. He found, and interviewed Noah. Noah related the flood experience which the intrepid Gilgamesh reported in the first person singular!

  The pronouns he used when rendering Noah's story were Noah (Utnapishtim) saying  "I", "my" and "mine." In the Epic of Gilgamesh, we learn that the post-flood settlers of the lower Tigris-Euphrates Valley came upon the silted over remains of pre-flood cities. They dug them out for memorabilia and for tools. Then, time after time, they built new, post flood cities over the older, pre-flood silted over urban sites. And the new post-flood cities were given their pre-flood city names. This happens more than a half dozen times. One of these sites is/was Shuruppak, both a pre-flood city and a post-flood city.

     In the Epic of Gilgamesh, one finds it recorded that Noah was familiar with several pre-flood cities such as Shuruppak, Nippur and Uruk (or Erech, the modern Warka).  In this account, on Tablet XI, line 23, we read about Noah: Reed hut, hearken! Wall, consider  Man of Shuruppak, son of Ubara-Tutu! Tear down (thy) house, build a ship! Abandon (thy) possessions, seek (to save) life!

     The temptation exists to discuss various issues in this citation that are tangent to the moment. What we wish to point out here is that Noah was familiar with the pre-flood city of Shuruppak, indeed seems to have been a a citizen of it. Once the post flood city of Shuruppak is located, one locates simultaneously the pre-flood city of Shuruppak. On this basis, we postulate the graving dock for the construction of Noah's Ark was within 15 miles of Shuruppak.

     The post-flood ruins of Shuruppak are found in Southern Iraq at approximately 31 deg. 45 min. N. latitude and at 45 deg. 35 min. E. longitude.  Thus, Shurippak, near where the Ark originally was built, is about 543 miles distant from  the Ark Site near Dogubayazit, at the village of Uzengili, formerly Nisir. (We assume the Ark was floated there by massive tides on a curled line, not a straight one.) The Ark was floated essentially north by north by northwest (by modern spin pole reckoning).

     This distance, about 543 miles as the crow flies, was probably closer to 580 miles, or even 590 miles in its actual route.  (See Chapter VI.)  Its net change was 7.81  degrees of latitude to the north and 1.2 degrees longitude to the west.  Such was the horizontal distance of Noah's "pleasant nautical tour."

     Shuruppak is by our reckoning about l50 feet above modern sea level. The Fasold Formation (the apparent Ark Site) is 6,300 feet above! (We allow that pre-flood sea level may have been was some 400 feet lower than modern, post-flood sea level, but that changes nothing.)  The elevation of the Nisir/Uzengili bench, where the Ark originally was moored, before it slipped down slope, is about 6,500 FEET ABOVE MODERN SEA LEVELThus, we assess (along with some 600 so miles of horizontal touring) some 6,350 feet of vertical touring! It was a most interesting tour indeed!

     The direction the Ark moved can only be related to the modern cardinal directions. We shall see (in Chapter X) that there were several spin axis location shifts, including a massive one during Noah's Flood.) By modern reckoning, based on the above coordinates, the Ark moved due north by 5.6 degrees west.

     Knowing this, the flood waters, however high, came from the opposite direction, south by 5 or 6 degrees east. This points directly to the Indian Ocean as the source of the tides for Noah's Flood. The Indian Ocean is due south of Asia, averages 12,500 ft. deep, covers 28,350,000 sq. miles, and has a volume of about 66 million cubic miles of water. In the Genesis account, Genesis 7:11, note the nautical detail: In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were ALL THE FOUNTAINS OF THE GREAT DEEP BROKEN UP... This phrase describes, to Chaldeans, their great ocean to the south, what we today know as the Indian Ocean.

The  Problem  Clarifies  (in Part)

     There is the journey of the Ark of between 550 to 600 miles horizontally for which to account. An extreme tidal wave today might move a small boat a mile inland, and 30 or 40 feet above high tide. These flood waters had height approaching 5,000 feet plus sub-crustal expansion. They had breadth of 2,000 miles, and more. This implies high velocity, high volume water

     In August, 1883, a small volcanic island, Krakatoa, erupted massively.  It created a monstrous cavity, into which the walls of the belching volcano soon collapsed.  In the Java Sea, that sudden collapse of volcano walls produced a series of massive tidal waves. Those tidal waves uplifted small boats, anchored at dock side, and swept them inland up to 2 miles, on tidal waves that crested at 50 feet high.  That is what the 19th century called "a catastrophe."  (In ancient times it wouldn't have been worth mentioning.)

      By contrast, Noah's Ark was swept inland and upward over 6,350 feet.  Moreover it was swept onward over 550 miles. To a geographer, this is what is so intriguing about finding the remains of a vessel in the most unlikely of places, the highlands of Inner Asia (Eastern Turkey). Moreover, to a marine engineer, how the vessel survived the obviously stressful journey is similarly rather intriguing. Apparently is remarkable size helped. And estimating the velocity of those waters is a challenge. From certain conditions in the geology of India (see Chapter IV), it is apparent that those flood waters had velocities in some places approaching 300 mph., twice as fast as atmospheric movement during typhoons or hurricanes.

     TIP  #  1.  The Genesis account recalls the onset day of Noah's Flood in the following way:
 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.  Genesis. 7:11  What was "the fountains of the great deep?" It was the largest body of water then known to inhabitants of the Middle East, the Indian Ocean! Today, the Indian Ocean, covering 28,000,000 sq. miles, reaches from India and the Tropic of Cancer to the Antarctic Circle on one hand, 25% of the circumference of our planet. And it is a lonely ocean, almost bereft of tiny islands, stretching from Africa to Australia on the other axis. This is 75 to 80 degrees of longitude, another 5,500 miles. As previously mentioned, the Indian Ocean's average depth is 12,500 feet deep, and it contains 66,000,000 cubic miles of water. This body of water, we suggest, was source of the tides of Noah's flood, "the great deep," as was compared to lesser ancient bodies of water.

     TIP  #  2.  The same verse of Genesis indicates that the "great deep" was broken up. The change would have to be sudden, since water flows back to sea level rapidly. Could this description mean either tides or tidal waves? Tidal waves are results of subterranean Earthquakes and volcanoes. Tide, on the other hand, are caused by a second astronomical body, a second gravity suddenly entering the scene!

Two - Gravity  Event!

     The Epic of Gilgamesh provides a solid clue as to what caused Noah's Flood.  It says the flood was caused by Enlil. Enlil was one of several 'Sumerian cosmic deities', one among the company of Ea, Anu, Ninurta and Inanna.  These latter four deities were the Earth, Jupiter, Saturn and Venus respectively. Enlil, the ravaging celestial deity, was the planet Mars! On several occasions in the Epic of Gilgamesh, Enlil is pointed or singled out as the deluge's cause. For example, lines 166-171 of Tables XI read: "Let the gods come near to the offering; But Enlil shall not come near to the offering; Because without reflection he brought on the deluge; And consigned my people to destruction! As soon as Enlil arrived and saw the ship, Enlil was wroth!"

     And so it was with the celestial family squabble in the heavens. According to Sumerian sources, the cause was Enlil (Mars).  According to Chaldean sources it was Bel (Mars). According to Assyrian cuneiform sources, it was Nergal-Mars, sometimes translated as "Irregal".  Mars was the culprit, not Venus... Enlil, not Inanna... Bel, not Ashtoreth. (Illustration: Gilgamesh Tablet)

     In the Krakatau experience, the original cause of the tidal wave was the creation of the cavity. Then, DUE TO GRAVITY, the walls of the volcano collapsed back into the cavity that had been vacated due to the eruptions. In the Genesis account, we suggest GRAVITY was the cause for the "breaking open "of the great fountain of the deep.  (Mars has 11% of the mass of the Earth.) This calls for tides, gravity-driven tides (not Earthquake driven tidal waves).

QUESTION 1.  How close would Mars have to come, to create a 6,000-foot swell in the Indian Ocean?  Mars is almost 9 times as massive as the Moon, and it is 11% the mass of the Earth.  This question as posed, we believe is too simplistic. It is simplistic because, assuming a fast and furious approach of Enlil-Mars, the Earth would respond with two tides. One tide, the watery one, would be spreading out from that ocean facing Enlil-Mars. The second tide would be sub-crustal, in the ocean of hot, fiery magma just under out l0-mile-thin crust!

     For a simple volumetric comparison, we calculated that the Indian Ocean contains 66 million miles of cool fluid. The Earth's magma zone, including the core zones, comprises some 250 trillion cubic miles of hot fluid. This is 3 million times more volume. But ocean tides are resisted only by easily-moved air. On the other hand, sub-crustal magma tides are resisted by a 10 to 20-mile elastic-type crust, one which will bend and bend, stretch an stretch, but can tear. In engineering terms, it can go from the elastic condition to the plastic condition, and produce uplifts.

QUESTION  2. How close would Mars-Enlil have to come to the Earth, and to its Eastern Hemisphere specifically, to create crustal deformations (by magma tides) of 3,000 feet and oceanic tides simultaneously, also of up to 5,000 feet? 3,000 feet of crustal deformation and 5,000 feet of water or ocean deformation can add to make the 6,500 feet of deformation for which we seek. It is to Question 2 that many of our scientific book chapters are directed.

     Hopefully, this series of chapters will provide basic, accurate information and preliminary conclusions about the geography, the history, the geology and the astronomy of Noah's Flood. In addition, we are able to provide information on the engineering and architecture of Noah's Ark, as determined from the skeleton of iron spots that David Fasold found. 

     In the Flood story by Berossus, a Chaldean priest, recorded in the third century B.C., the cause of the flood once again was a planet, the Babylonian or Chaldean planet named Bel. In the Chaldean cosmic pantheon, Bel (like Enlil) was Mars. In the Old Testament, it is structured somewhat differently. Bel-Enlil shows up as Baal, the Canaanite-Phoenician deity of cosmic destruction. Baal's consort was Ashtarte-Venus. In the ancient Vedas of India, Mars-Enlil shows up as the ravaging Indra, after which an entire subcontinent has been named. In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, Mars shows up, bringing havoc in the name of Horus. In Greek accounts, it is Ares, cognate with Horus. In early Latin accounts from Rome, the devastating planet is the great Ares - Magna Ares, slurred into Mars.

     Perhaps the nub of the question, then, is not whether Mars came close to the Earth (or close to Ea, the Earth in Sumerian accounts).  Rather, the nub of the question then, is "How close." As mentioned above, it is to this question that our several scientific chapters are directed. Our estimate on the day of Noah's Flood: 15,000 miles - planet core to planet core. The radii of the two planets are 4,000 and 2,l00 miles respectively. Thus we estimate, closest surface to surface, 6,900 miles!

     The Moon has a mass of .0l23 of the Earth's, roughly one-eightieth. Its average distance is 240,000 miles. The Moon can create oceanic tides in oceans variously from a few inches up to 50 feet, depending on latitude, water mass, water depth, shoreline configuration, etc. Even the maximum Moon tide, 50 feet, is completely below the magnitude of a watery tide of 5,000 feet for which we call. Of equal interest, the Moon at 240,000 miles can create a tide in the Earth's elastic crust of about 2 inches. Mars is 8.7 times as massive as the Moon. We estimate that a Mars at 240,000 miles would create oceanic tides in the range of 10 to 200 feet, depending on latitude, shoreline configuration, water depth, water mass, etc. Apparently Mars would in addition create a crustal tide of 18 to 20 inches. This would turn many ordinary wells into twice-daily water geysers (cool water). Earthquakes would be a daily event, like the wind and rain!

     Tides vary for a variety of reasons. The two major reasons are the distance and the mass of the causing body. In physics and astronomical circles, it is said that tides vary "as to the inverse of the distance cubed."  This means that as the distance becomes halved, the resultant tides increase eightfold! If it could be said that:

Tides vary for a variety of reasons

Distance Mars from Earth

(1) all tides behaved geometrically,

At 240,000 miles would create 20-foot tropical tides

(2) all tropical tides were 2 feet high

At l20,000 miles the red planet would create 160-foot tropical tides

(3) Mars is 8 x the mass of the Moon, then Mars;

At 60,000  miles Enlil would create 1,280-foot tropical tides (160 x 8).


At 30,000  miles the reservoir would begin to run out, but if not, oceanic tides could go 10,000 ft. high. Of course it is not so simple, because reservoir volumes vary, depths vary, bottom configurations vary, angles and distances to the approaching Mars would vary, etc. etc.

 In any analysis on a graph, the curve of tidal action becomes very steep when theoretically Mars comes within 50,000 miles of the Earth. In fact, the curve of tidal action steepens to infinity theoretically if Mars approaches to 11,000 miles (core to core). There, theoretically, at 11,000 miles from the Earth's core, and 7,000 miles from our surface, Mars would explode, or fragment due to its internal tidal stresses which  would overwhelm all constraints. (Scientists call that distance for explosion, or fragmentation,(2.44 radii of the larger planet) "Roche's Limit." Saturn's Rings are at Saturn's Roche Limit, as are the dark, virtually invisible rings of Jupiter and Uranus at the Roche's Limit of those planets..

     Thus, the question is further clarified. Mars-Enlil apparently came in much closer than 240,000 miles.  But it did not come in as close as 11,000 miles, measuring planet core to core. Of the remaining range of distance of 229,000 miles, Mars came in most of that distance, if 5,000-foot tides were produced.

Floating  Uphill  Versus  Downhill

Water cannot flow freely uphill. (Under certain siphon conditions involving a vacuum, it can but that is not a freely flowing state).  But, theoretically it is possible, under extreme gravitational duress, during a two-gravity crisis, a Mars-Enlil flyby, for the Earth's sphere to change its shape a little. But a little can be a lot.  A 1.2-mile distortion on a planet radius of 3,950 miles is all that is required, only a 0.03% distortion of shape.

      The Earth technically is shaped like "an oblate spheroid," flat at the poles somewhat and bulging at the equator. Under close Mars flyby conditions, the Earth's shape would change somewhat to become slightly "pear-shaped." The side of the Earth pointing away from Mars-Enlil would compare to the flat side of a pear, which points away from the Sun.There, gravities of both the Earth and Mars pull the bottom toward the core. The bulging lower middle of the pear compares to the Earth's rim facing Mars, 90 degrees from facing Mars. And the pointy side of the Earth compares to the side facing Mars, just as the pointy side of a pear, growing on a tree, faces the heavens.

     Complicating this "still" model is the fact that Mars would be advancing in the heavens some 30,000 mph faster than the Earth, considering both planet velocities and directions.In addition to that, the Earth itself was spinning, rotating 360 degrees per day, 15 degrees per hour. The 6-hour time period of the flyby is a complicated scene, to be sure, but not so complicated as to be beyond studied understanding! Some of our understanding is:

(a) Geographical, involving the geographies of both planets.
(b) Historical, involving ancient flood accounts in cuneiform, in Genesis and other ancient sources. It also involves other ancient literatures showing the fears of celestial conditions in ancient times. 
(c) Engineering, determining how much water overwhelmed Shuruppak and other places in Asia, and what kind of velocities those flood waters had.
(d) Scientific, and involves increasingly technical language

These topics will be front and center in Volume I of: The Flood of Noah. But much of our analysis and understanding is (d) scientific, and involves increasingly technical language. The more technical scientific aspects will be front and center in Volume II of: The Flood of Noah addresses such issues as spin axis shifts, as paleo-magnetic polarity reversals, and the need for a new and better perspective of the origin of the solar system.

     And there is a presentation as to how that need for a new, better, more realistic cosmology is best met. Many general readers will find themselves swimming in unfamiliar details amid unfamiliar, technical language, and will prefer things to be kept "simple." We are not able to fulfill that understandable desire for ease and simplicity! Our objective is to create a new, higher standard by which other books on Earth history will have to be judged!

    If our planet was distorted in shape, from apple-shaped to pear-shaped, for a few hours by 0.03%, then the distance from the pointy point on the Earth to the Earth's center would change from some 20,900,000 feet to 20,906,270 feet. This change would allow Noah's Ark to surf on Indian Ocean tides, and surf all the way DOWNHILL TO EASTERN ANATOLIA! Or, to put it another way, with the gravity Of Mars,11% of the Earth's, zooming into within 15,000 miles, the waters of the Indian Ocean became slightly confused as to which direction was up versus down.

     So there was a compromise and Indian Ocean waters flowed to the center of mass of the two-planet system. That center of mass to which the waters flowed was a shifting location. Mars was approaching, or retreating, and the Earth was rotating. That theoretical location, the center of the two-planet mass, was shifting some 50 miles per minute. If the Indian Ocean waters were confused that day, so do we the readers have an excuse to also be confused! This work in two volumes is designed to lessen that confusion.                         

      Thus, if the ancient mariner found himself and his vessel at the graving dock, suddenly facing an onrushing Mars on the eastern horizon, he and his vessel would be moving rapidly to the Earth's "momentarily pointy side." Swells, perhaps of the height of 5,000 feet, or more, could have been building up in the Indian Ocean to the southeast. Then, crashing across coastal regions, those open ocean swells became some massive breakers, massive indeed. Noah's graving dock would have to be carefully chosen to fend off the force of the breakers, and allow backfilling slow water to float the boat. Otherwise, it would go like everything else, "cup over tea kettle"!

     That geologists never consider evidence of water movement above 50 mph is their problem, not ours! We estimate at the height of the Flood, over Peninsular India, the velocity of those waters approached 300 mph! Chaldea was somewhat backwater in location compared to Peninsular India. This is discussed in Chapter 3.

     That astronomers never consider evidence that Mars has had at least three different orbits around the Sun is their problem, not ours.  In Chapter 10, we shall present both the shifts in energy and in angular momentum among the planets that brought Mars from its Catastrophic Era orbit to the modern one!

    We have considered some introductory material concerning the geography of Shuruppak, reported to contain the graving dock where the Ark was built. We shall turn now to the geography of where the Ark finally landed, some l2 months later, according to the Genesis record. We shift our attention to a small "bench" covering just a few flat acres where the village of Uzengili lies. Uzengi, after whom Uzengili is named, is a sort of a Paul Bunyan type character in Kurdish folklore, only he pulled a huge boat, not a giant plow. Formerly, in Kurdish, before 1950, for millennia, the name of this small sheep and goat-herding village had been Nasar. Uzengili-Nasar is 6,500 feet above sea level! It is 2 miles north of the Iranian border. It is 35 miles from the Soviet border. It is 18 miles due south (within one degree) of the famous extinct volcano, Mt. Ararat.  The Ark was moored here originally, but later it slipped a few hundred yards down the 11 to 12-degree slope, and there it came to rest and underwent decomposition.

Cultural Evidence

To linguists, anthropologists, ethnologists and archaeologists, the cultural evidence surrounding the Ark Site will be more significant than the scientific evidence. On the other hand, to astronomers, engineers, geographers, geologists and oceanographers, the scientific evidence will be more significant. We consider the scientific evidence, reserved for Volume II, to be the dominant category. Yet the cultural evidence is interesting, is significant, and is rather supportive.

1.   The Mountains of Ararat

This is the land known in modern, or late modern times, as Armenia.  It is where the three countries of Iran, Turkey and the Soviet Union all meet, in the highlands of Inner Asia. Berossus, a Chaldean historian writing in the third century B.C., wrote:

It is also said that the land in which they found themselves was Armenia.  -  The Babyloniaca of Berossus. Section "The Flood" Armenia is a highland region shared by three countries, comprising  some 75,000 sq. miles, about the size of our state of Kansas. Its average elevation compares better to our mountain states of Utah or Colorado.

In ancient times, this region was known as "Urartu," cognate with Mt. Ararat.  Mt. Ararat, the extinct volcanic cone, incidentally, didn't bear that name until medieval map makers named it about 1300 A.D. "The mountains of Ararat" would be better translated as "the mountains of Urartu." This would eliminate some confusion!

2.  Mount  Nisir

     Mt. Nisir is the place name where the Ark landed in the Epic of Gilgamesh.  That source is cited as follows: On Mount Nisir the ship landed.   (Tablet XI line l40. (Lines l4l to l44 restate this four more times.) It is clear to us that the Ark of Noah originally was moored alongside a small bench some 1800 feet farther up on the slope than the Ark Site. Apart from the small, flat bench, the general slope is between 10 and 13 degrees, sloping upward to the south.  Apparently, in the century or two after the Flood, whether due to wet soil conditions or Earthquakes, or just the mooring ropes rotting away, the Ark slipped and slided down to its current position.  Here, it was impaled midships on an modest outcropping, where its slide ended.

     The small village, named Uzengili today, bore the name Nasar among the Kurds for uncounted millennia.  The Kurds are identical with the ancient Cordyean people to whom ancient historians refer.  That bench,  and N-Uzengili, are within shouting distance above and west from the Ark Site.  When foreign tourists arrive at the site, children from Uzengili suddenly appear and descend on the tourists.  And soon, men of the village also began to appear when our gang was there, apparently curious.  Voices carry for long distances in these uplands.  Then after perhaps a half hour, Kurdish wives, in long black outfits, begin to yell at their menfolk across the hillside, to get back to work.

       After 1950, the name of the village has been Uzengili, after Uzengil, a giant Kurdish fairy-type character, dragging his boat. The Earthquake of 1948, upthrusting and accenting this formation, had something to do with the desire of the villagers to rename it, as well as the tradition that the remains of the Ark was there.

     But before l950, the village's name was Nasar.  In Semitic languages, the vowels aren't nearly as important as they are in English.  Nasar, Nezir, Nisir, Nosar and Nuzur are from the same foundation, N-S-R.  Various Near Eastern languages and dialects will handle the vowels variously. Thus, the Nisir of the Epic of Gilgamesh and the historic name Nasar are the same word, N - S - R.  This appears to be the same place name as was given in the Epic of Gilgamesh some 4,000 years ago for the Ark's landing site. 

3.   Place  of  Sacrifice...

     The first thing mentioned in the Genesis account of Noah's Flood is, after disembarking, the holding of a Thanksgiving Service. ...And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.  (Genesis 8:20) In Semitic languages, N-S-R means "Place of Sacrifice." One can say with virtual certainty, that after the worship and prayers of thanksgiving to Ea (their Sumerian word for "God"), there was both a festive atmosphere and plenty of roast beef.  And there was much for which to be thankful, but there was much reason also for concern in the bleak-looking  future.

      They did not know where they were. But it was chilly, in fact it was downright cold. (It was 6,500 feet above sea level, with winter about to break on them.) Pasture was skimpy, although the Ark still had plenty of reeds for fodder. It now served as a barn. Temperatures were dropping daily. Food supplies other than milk and meat, were dwindling.

     According to BR 32.11, and the parallels cited by Theodor, Noah suffered very much from the cold, while the same source, 9, and Tehillim 1, 11, state that the Ark, despite the mass of water, rested quietly "as a ship in port".   F 1  Ginzberg, V., p. l82; Zohar I, 68a-68b and 69a, states that Noah by hiding in the Ark escaped the 'angel of death'. F 2 Loc. cit.

The "angel of death" was quite visible and it had a gravitational field. It also had reflectivity and rotation. When close to its perihelion, it had icy comet streamers formed by evaporated ices from its surface. The "angel of death" and the "angel of the Lord" were Hebrew terms for Mars, at the time of Noah's Flood, at the time of Moses and the Exodus, and during the final flyby in the time of Isaiah! An angel of this type, while not a welcome sight, nevertheless was considered a "messenger of the Lord"!

4.  Mount  Judi - Cudi

     In the 6th century A.D. in Arabia, one Mohammed married a wealthy widow, and took over her a business. He became a merchant.  His travels took him from Mecca to Medina, to Damascus, and to Aleppo and possibly to other Byzantine centers of commerce, in Syria if not in the upper Tigris-Euphrates Valley. There, he learned the tradition that the Ark of Noah landed on a mountain named "Mt. Judi." He incorporated this information in the Koran, his religious writings. In the Turkey of today, there are three Mt. Judies. One is within sight of Mt. Ararat, and is in Armenia ...the Mt. Judi that contains the Fasold formation where our gang did research on June 21, 1990.  It is this Mt. Judi on the slopes of which appears to be the Ark Site.  There are two other Mt. Judies in southern Turkey but they are not to be confused with this Mt. Judi! In the Turkish language, of Mongolian derivation, they have adopted a Western type alphabet. But they pronounce their "C" as we pronounce our "J". Therefore on Turkish maps this is "Mt. Cudi", or more precisely, "Cudi Dagi. Mt. Ararat, resplendent in the distance, is "Agri Dagi". Little Ararat to the east is "Cuc Agri Dagi." Cudi Dagi keeps rising to the south, for another two miles, to about  9,500 feet.  There, its crest forms part of a ridge which is the Turkish-Iranian border.

5.  Place of Pilgrimage

     To the east of Cudi Dagi is Ziyaret Dagi. In Kurdish, this name means "to make a voluntary pilgrimage". For the subsequent 2,000 years after the Flood, the Ark site was indeed a place of voluntary pilgrimages, according to both Berossus  and Josephus. And why not? Noah was a highly venerated personage to later post-flood generations, much more so than is George Washington to our generation. Perhaps mindset of venerating Noah's Ark site was precisely where the post-flood Near Eastern tradition began of making pilgrimages back to the place of one's roots.

     The Near East is a place where today, religious animosity is rife, and those animosities have a long, and to us, an inglorious history. Perhaps Cudi Dagi, and its sister mountain, Ziyaret Dagi, someday could become a places of pilgrimage and of inspiration for peoples of many nationalities. It was for our gang, all Christians. We found these lower mountains such as Mt. Judi to be a nice hike, and the weather in June can be glorious. Moreover the awesome volcanic cone, Ararat was but 18 miles to the north, and is very available and challenging for the real mountain climbers. It was near to this site (Ziyaret Dagi), a place of pilgrimage to ancients, where a profound if modest archaeological find was discovered by Fasold and Wyatt. Ziyaret Dagi is next to Mt. Judi, or in Turkish, Cudi Dagi.

6.  Hero's  Anchorage

     The Kurds have a name for the slope beside the bench on which Nasar-Uzengili is located.  That slope , in Kurdish/Turkish, is "Yigityatagi." This word is open to various translations, including "hero's bed," "hero's berth," "hero's encampment" and "hero's anchorage." Noah appears in flood accounts variously as Utnapishtim (the highly-venerated Na), Ziusudra, Nu, Manu and Atrahasis (man of wisdom) in various of these flood accounts. He was such a hero that later generations, increasingly confused, began to equate him with deity. Hero's Anchorage, or Hero's Encampment was an entirely reasonable place name, given those conditions, first of survival and later of veneration..

7.  Crow  can't  Land

     About two miles distant, to the east (toward Iran), is another village whose livelihood is based on rug making, goats and sheep. The name of this village is Kargakonmaz.  This place name means "Crow Can't Land."  The raven, or crow, was one of the birds used by Noah in several of the Sumerian, Chaldean and Assyrian versions of the Flood story  as well as in the Genesis story.  Amid all of the fog, Noah was trying to draw a bead on the nearest landfall.

     To a sophisticated skeptic, city-oriented westerner, a city slicker, or to a drug store cowboy, a village with a name like "Crow Can't Land" seems a strange, if not downright "hokey". However, in the recent Indian culture of the West, in Montana, such names as "Medicine Hat," "Plentywood," "Blackfoot," "Flathead," "Crazy Horse," "Red Cloud," "Cut Bank" and "Two Medicine" do not sound out of the ordinary at all. And Blackfeet family names are similarly strange, Mad Plume, Two Guns, Half Moon, Running Wolf, Little Weasel, even Guts Hangs on the Fence. 

    Perhaps the traditions of the Kurds, the ancient Cordyeans, go all the way back to the era of Noah. The Kurds are an ancient people, and their embattled language is worth saving. Given a society scratching a living in mountainous terrain, that is not a strange name if the event in fact did happen early on. The Genesis account says just that, except the black bird was defined as a raven rather than a crow. But there is no difference. They were as close to nature originally as were the Blackfeet, Crows and Flatheads 150 years ago. And it shows in these place names, going back 4,500 years to the original events of the area.

8.  East to the Egg

     In the early centuries after the Flood, the Ark was a collapsing shell. The reeds/fodder deteriorated first, followed by the wooden logs and beams. The cement-like shell, was made of a mastic, a type of cement including bitumen base, with additives including ash, sand and some silicates such as feldspar. It has been erroneously termed "gopherwood" because G-P-R, like K-P-R, are the ancient consonants describing cements. The inside materials rotted first, leaving the shell, some 18 inches thick, to crack and break down last. That shell resembled an egg shell in general shape, although not in size. It appears that Dogubayazit's name comes from that ancient era, when it was the first town in the valley, west of "the egg," or the "egg shell."   If so, Dogubayazit is a town with a meaningful name, like the tiny villages of Kargokonmaz, and Nisir.

9.  Mahshur

     The location of the Ark site a pasture on a hillside with a 11 degree slope. It can hardly be called a field because usually a field is flat, and cultivated. This unfenced pasture location in Kurdish also has a name, "Mahshur."  Mahshur means in the Kurdish language, "Place of Judgment." This name also has overtones of the flood story, and catastrophism.

10.  One  IKU

     One English acre is 44,100 sq. ft while the American acre varies slightly, at 43,560 sq. ft.  In the ancient land of Chaldea, the standard measure for area was one IKU, which was 120 Babylonian cubits squared. It was about 43,984 sq. ft.  Interestingly, this area, one IKU, also computes out as the surface or deck area of Noah's Ark.  There will be more details on this in Chapter 2.

     The IKU was also used as a standard of measure for area by the Phoenicians and the Carthaginians. How this word for "an acre" got to England nobody knows. One might speculate that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians brought it to England as they traded for English tin from the tin mines of Cornwall. On the other hand, perhaps the "acre" was there much earlier, and came with some of the settling tribes, the Saxons and other Germanic tribes. So far as we are aware, nobody knows.  However, the idea of an acre and acreage in England, and now America, goes back to the Chaldean IKU, which was the deck area of Noah's Ark. This is another type of cultural evidence, albeit geographical type, a surprising kind of evidence.

     The fundamental contrast between the two Assyrian texts that meant so much for George Smith resides in a singular detail: Utnapishtim of the Epic of Gilgamesh appears as an experienced ship-builder, as lines 54 to 79 present him, referring in detail to the construction of the refuge-ship and to its builder. On the other hand, in the second Assyrian tradition Atrahasis  declares emphatically, in lines 11 to 17, that he never had built a ship, hence he begs the god Ea to make a design of the ship upon the ground so that he will be able to build it.  F 4  Dundes p. 53 Genesis also states that G-D gave the plans for the Ark to Noah. It may well be true that Noah, in the pre-flood era, had experience of some kind with boats, either in building them or in their pre-flood commence on water. The Epic of Gilgamesh, as just mentioned, cites Noah as an experienced ship builder.  This possibility is not to be discounted.

     Ten citations of cultural evidence are given indicating or favoring the Fasold-Wyatt site as being indeed what they claim, the remains of Noah's Ark.  Nine of these citations are place names, ranging from regions to villages, and from mountains to hillsides. One, very surprising, is the Babylonian standard of measure for area, which was used in lofting out the Ark 4500 years ago, and which is still used in modern England for the English version on "One IKU."

About the author Donald W. Patten & his scientifically written book!

Donald W. Patten, a geographer by training and lifelong interest, was born on November 11, 1929, in Conrad, a small town on the high plains of Montana near Glacier National Park. He entered the University of Montana in 1947 and engaged upon a series of studies including ancient history, ancient literature, climatology, genetics, geography, geomorphology, mathematics and philosophy.

While absorbing humanistic viewpoints, he also began to read the Bible, and to reflect upon its claims. In 1948, he experienced conversion to Biblical Christianity, and through a coincidence, was given pulpit duties as a student at a small, rural community church in the village of Lolo. Following his conversion, this further experience in lay preaching and teaching was a most profound influence in his young manhood, coming in the midst of his studies.

Donald W. Patten received a B.A, in Geography from the University of Washington in 1951, and a M.A. in Geography in 1962. Donald W. Patten and his wife Lorraine have one daughter (Judy) and six sons.

The Flood of Noah

The author contends that, through the agency of astral principles, the Earth became engaged, or engulfed, in simultaneous gravitational upheavals and magnetic conflicts. There came with suddenness to our fragile, spiraling sphere, THE FLOOD OF NOAH. Readers of this unique writing's will find a challenging and refreshing view of ancient catastrophism and its conclusion, Divine Creation, a subject of importance in this age of increasing intellectual rootlessness.

Donald W. Patten proposes his view in various fields of geography, archeology, ancient-history and science of ancient celestial crises, global catastrophes. Such catastrophes may explain many features about several planets. Such catastrophes, relative to the Earth-Moon system, explain the raising up of mountain ranges, sweeping across the face of the Earth in accurate alignment, similar to the mountain patterns of the Moon.

This was achieved suddenly, and by tidal upheavals within the oceans (of centrifugally rotating lava) within the Earth's crust. Simultaneously, tidal upheavals engulfing the oceans raised tides of sub-continental dimensions on the Earth's crust, thus the historically recorded Deluge, or Flood.

Biblical Scientifically studies are always freely available for everyone!

There are several Scientifically organizations involved who gave their permission & their devotion to add their information about this subject on this web-page; to serve the Lord and to serve you as well! See at list below this site! As editor; Paul van Beek; I really appreciate the author Donald W. Patten & his daughter Judy Fenton & other family-members for their cooperation to make these web-page's to a reality!

This ministry; God's Outreach Ministry Int. Inc.; Scientifically  - Teachingís web-page's in several web-site's, with many of Biblical Scientifically studies is always freely available for everyone! It is written in various fields of geography, archeology, ancient-history and science in web-pages! As such, these detailed teachingís/ scientifically web-pageís will cost a lot of precious time and financial commitment for the authors and the publisher as well! Every study, that takes you for this specific page a few hours scientifically study-material to read, and the illustrations according the story, takes many, many hours of devotional work to write, to edit, to design, to modify, to format and technically make available & maintain on the web server! That is the simple reality of the situation!...Paul van Beek See also at: Graphic Design

This page of Science / Archeology of: "Noah's FloodĒ Chapter - 1 is created by:

The "Noah's flood" has been generated by his interests in various fields of geography, archeology, history and science.
With permission and cooperation by:
by  Donald W. Patten ©; Copyright,
Judy Fenton - Daughter (& other Family members)
Seattle, WA 98125 USA

Bible verses out of the Dake's annotated Reference Bible (KGV) + Note's
Jewish Bible; Hebrew Scriptures; Amplified Bible

Edited; Lay-Out & Graphic designed
by: Paulus van Beek

Godís Outreach Ministry Int. Inc.
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Text is edited by Paul van Beek with lay-outs and Scriptural color-codes; underlining's, bold; entitling; illustrations; etc...; Names of "Jehovah" are replaced by the Scriptural Names: "Yahweh"  {Tetragrammaton}; & God into G-D  Yeshua is the Jewish/Hebrew Name of "Jesus Christ" is added; Original text is NOT changed; Grammar issues are removed so far as possible! NOTE:  (in red) These parts are added from other sources!)
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