Ancient threatening astral catastrophes
continued to plague mankind!
The Geographical Distribution of Ancient Flood Traditions
THE PURPOSE is to demonstrate that:
Ancient astral catastrophes, or threatening astral catastrophes, continued to plague mankind and his planet for perhaps 20 centuries following the Flood catastrophe, and this theme permeated ancient literatures, architectures, cosmologies, folklores and religions. The geographical distribution of these ancient traditions illustrates that elliptical orbits and a semi-orderly solar system were a recent but historical condition in our small corner of the galaxy. An understanding of the principle of the astral motif in ancient sources will contribute to and undergird an understanding of the mechanics of the Flood; and similarly, an understanding of the mechanics of the Flood will prepare for a broader and deeper understanding of the geophysical and psychological crises of ancient civilizations, where cities were destroyed periodically by earth-shakings and then rebuilt upon their own rubble.
Experiences of a great Flood were recorded in the traditions from every continent, Antarctica excepted! Various scholars in the past have noted and correlated this phenomenon. The following list is not to be considered exhaustive; it is merely representative of the societies possessing Flood traditions:
The post-Diluvian (Pre Noah-Flood) theme of astral chaos or
threatening astral havoc includes motifs of fire and brimstone: comets,
earthquakes, meteors, pestilences, tumults, and earth-shakings. These
events do not mean that another Flood recurred, but they do indicate
that this kind of astral phenomenon persisted over many centuries. If
there were eccentric orbits, persistently intersecting orbits,
conflicts, and near oppositions, then catastrophes would be
mathematically inevitable. This phase of ancient history strengthens the
case of the astrophysical mechanism of the Flood1,2.The
only variables would be the type of havoc, the intensity of the chaos,
and the location of the occasion, which would vary from time to time,
and from opposition to opposition.
2. The nearer to the Sun a planet or comet is, the more rapidly it revolves, and for planets, the more abbreviated is its orbit. A plane perpendicular to the zodiac is crossed by Mercury once every 44 days. The same plane is crossed by Venus once every 112 days. For Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, it is once every 183, 343, 2166, 5381, 15344, and 25106 days respectively. This illustrates how much more activity there is in the regions nearer the Sun, and how much higher is the chance of conflict with a random comet with the inner planets. This principle, however, is countered by the distribution of distances of known comets at perihelion. Most do not approach the Sun within the ranges of the inner planets.)
Since this subject is a monumental one in its own right, for the sake of brevity this study will consider only a few areas, among which will be India, Japan, Mexico and Peru, and the Middle East!
India has been settled historically by two major races: the Aryans and the Dravidians, both of whom had their principles of astral worship. The sky gods of the Aryans were quite comparable to the celestial pantheon of the Persians, the Greeks, and the Phoenecians. For instance, the Indo-European Dyaus Pitar was the Aryan or Indian counterpart for the Greek Zeus, the Roman Jupiter, the Egyptian Horus, and the Babylonian Bel.
The Indo-Aryans migrated into Northern India at
approximately the same time Abraham was migrating westward toward
Palestine from the famed Ur of the Chaldees, some 4,000 years ago. The
Aryans spoke a language related to Old Persian and Sanskrit. Concerning
the similarity of their
sky gods with those of other peoples of the
Middle East, E. O. James makes the following comment:
The astrologer was an important person in ancient Hindu life. This astrology motif recurs among such peoples as the Chaldeans, Druids, Egyptians, Germans, Greeks, Incas, and Mayans, all of whom also had astronomer-priests and astrologically oriented oracles. In Hinduism, the Sun, the Moon, the movements of the planets, the zodiac, meteor showers, earthquakes, and eclipses were (and still are) areas of fear, of worship, and of study. This is a holdover from ancient times when astral catastrophes, or impending catastrophes, were very imminent concerns.
During these times, astral catastrophes periodically threatened to occur! Their close approach might well be associated with great destruction; cities might be ruined, oceans might surge, fire and brimstone might again rain from the sky. Their approach or regress, night after night, was very much visible, and it was to these celestial bodies that the Hindus offered their propitiations. Kenneth W. Morgan has given the following description:
Rahu is parallel in motif to celestial concerns of other ancient religions. Rahu may refer to a historical semi-regular or periodical wanderer within our solar system. For instance, the story of the Phoenix in Egyptian mythology carries all of these elements of the Rahu story. Similarly, the story of Sosa no wo no Mikoto in Japanese mythology carries these elements, as does the ancient Druid traditions of the screeching witch, periodically crossing the heavens on a celestial broomstick and threatening the inhabitants with dire calamities, fearful and evil. Again, the Aztec counterpart of this theme is Quetzacoatl, a deity described as a fierce, feathered, flying serpent, periodically threatening to engulf the world in fire. The dragon in Chinese folklore also has comparable elements in its theme.
Thus, Hinduism, in being nature-oriented, was like so many of the ancient religions. However, two kinds of nature were involved within its orientation to nature worship. One involved the worship of astral phenomena which were comparable to the Apollo, Pallas Athene, Minerva, Hera, Aphrodite, Ares, Electra, Deimos, Phobos, Zeus system of the Greeks. And the second involved nature worship relative to geophysical phenomena--it included worship of winds, typhoons, oceans, thunderings and lightnings, rain, mountains, rivers, and seasons. And again, Greece, for instance, had a parallel complement of nature gods, oriented to the geophysical as well as to the astronomical.
The religious life of the Hindus, therefore, involved idolatrizing of the geophysical elements upon our own planet and also of themes celestial. Both involved nature worship; one was terrestrial; one was astral. They worshipped both phases of nature because it was nature that they couldn't understand, and hence it was nature that they feared.
Ancient people oriented many things toward astral phenomena. Architecture is an illustration. Many ancient peoples had obelisks, sun caves, sundials, sun temples, solar discs, solar and lunar calendars, and they observed solar and lunar festivals. The Egyptians, Druids and Mayans all built temples architecturally planned so that the first rays of the Sun on the autumnal and vernal equinoxes would fall upon the altar at the heart of the temple. The Egyptians built one such temple on the west bank of the Upper Nile, above Luxor; the Druids at Stonehenge, some 3,000 miles distant, as did the Mayans some 8,000 miles distant.
Thus, there seems to have been an historical concern that was in reality based on these ancient periodic astral catastrophes, and on whether the Earth's orbit remained regular or became perturbed. Calendars of the ancients were confused from time to time. For instance, ancient Syrian sundials prior to the ninth century B.C. point about 1° away from true east. Originally, archaeologists concluded that the ancients were poor mathematicians. They weren't. Early Babylonian astronomer-priests had mastered some phases of calculus. It would appear, for instance, that our 360° circle is actually based on the ancient Babylonian calendar involving 360 days in the solar cycle7.
The solar cycle1,2
It is suspected that
a slight change occurred both in the location of the poles and in the
orbit of the Earth during the
8th century B.C.,
at which time the year changed from
360 to 365 1/4 days.
This was not the result of one conflict, but rather was the net
result of several 'astral' conflicts. One of these conflicts was
Another, described in retrospect by
described with even greater clarity by Josephus (IX-X-4), and a third is
24:20, 37:36, 38:8).
As in so many areas of the world, Japan's supreme deities were also nature-oriented. They represented terrestrial (or geophysical) nature, such as mountains, oceans, winds, and seasons. They also represented celestial nature. Some of the ancient Japanese traditions were codified in the Nihongi where there is a tradition of creation which is remarkably similar to that in Genesis. There is also a tradition of a rupture between the sun-god and the moon-god. This is somewhat similar to the Hebrew tradition in the time of Joshua and of the extended day in which meteorites (fire and brimstone) rained from above, and the Sun and Moon were in irregular motion--again comparable to the Egyptian story of Phaethon, being drawn across the sky in a solar chariot by steeds gone wild.
The tradition of the Japanese Sosa no wo no Mikoto is comparable in theme: a wandering and vicious, evil, and astral principle, periodically afflicting one generation and then another. Note the similarities in themes:
Astral themes seem to be equally in evidence in the Western Hemisphere as in the Eastern Hemisphere. Evidences are particularly clear among the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas, since their cultures were more highly developed; yet similar themes are in evidence among many more primitive Indian tribes.
In the Mayan religion, the most important deities were the Sun, the Moon, and the planet Venus. This, of course, is directly parallel to the deities of Phoenicia, Egypt, and Babylonia. Eric Thompson describes something of the Mayan religion as follows: The Aztecs believed that the world had been created five times and had been destroyed four times, the present age being the fifth. Each age had been brought to a violent end, the agents being respectively ferocious jaguars, a hurricane, volcanic eruptions, and a flood. Traditions that have survived among the Maya on the number of creations and destructions of the world are somewhat at variance. That we are now in the fourth age is the view expressed in two sources. Nevertheless, it is probable that Maya belief was in agreement with the Aztec in assigning the number five to the present age.
Aztec and Mayan traditions, like that of the Hindus, were concerned about world ages, cycles, catastrophes, and new ages. The structure of their astral temples reflected this, as did that of so many other ancient peoples. Their mathematics and their religion also reflected their concern with astral cosmology.
In South America, the Incas built the capital of their immense empire at Cuzco, high in the Peruvian Andes. The center of Cuzco was their temple, along with the palace. At the center of the temple was a huge image of the Sun. It was made of solid slabs of gold and was placed on an altar. Within this splendid Inca temple, the mummified bodies of the Inca chiefs were placed on great golden chairs. The high point of the religious year was celebrated by the gathering of the priests and temple virgins in a great formation to repeat their sacred vows to their great god, the central body in our solar system, also known as Apollo in Greece. Similar themes of worship occurred in Memphis in Egypt, where sacred vows were made unto Ra, the sun-god of Egypt.
The Egyptian traditions are similar; only the god was hawk-faced, and he periodically flew across the celestial sea, bringing fire and smoke and occasionally earth quakings with his flight. Again the phoenix tradition is one of these comparable themes. And similar traditions occur regarding an interruption in the Sun's progress and natural calamities among the Arapahoes, the Comanches, the Polynesians, the Snoqualmies, and the Tlingits, to name but a few.
The purpose in recounting these ancient astral themes is three-fold. The purpose is:
All of these considerations do not directly concern the century of the Flood; yet these themes reinforce the mechanism or the principle needed to properly understand the cause and scope of the Biblical Flood. Thus, the astral catastrophe known as the Flood was not the last encounter of the Earth with elliptically traveling astral phenomena. It was merely the worst!
The Middle East is the region of the cradle of Western Civilization. It was in this region that the Ark landed and its passengers disembarked. It was here that Western Civilization was re-established, and it was from here that the Western World was repopulated with people of Caucasian phenotype. It was here that Caucasian peoples multiplied and migrated, and it was here that they worshipped, speculated, counted, measured, and wrote.
There have been numerous sources of information on the ancient conditions in the Middle East which have been lost or destroyed; among those which have survived are the writings of Moses (Genesis, Exodus, etc.), Job, Josephus (The Antiquities of the Jews), and the Psalms. Moses, the author of Genesis and Exodus, regarding his source material on the Flood. Again only briefly, to a consideration of Josephus, the historian, and his source material.
Josephus' account of the times of the Flood and early post-Diluvian times is more extensive than that of Genesis. It is interesting to note that Josephus had acquainted himself with Flood stories of other Middle Eastern nations through literature which is no longer extant. Some of his comments reflect ancient concern with regularity versus irregularity of astral phenomena and our solar system. Other comments regard whether or not another Flood might recur. Both types are most significant, and each reflects catastrophism in its own way. Our first quotation regards the Flood; the second regards post-Diluvian conditions several centuries later:
However the Armenians call this place ......, the place of descent, for the ark being saved in that place, its remains are shown there by the inhabitants to this day!
Now some writers of barbarian histories make mention of this flood, and of this ark; among whom is Berosus the Chaldean. For when he was describing the circumstances of the flood, he goes on thus: 'It is said there is still some part of this ship in Armenia, at the mountain of the Cort-yaeans; and that some people carry off pieces of the bitumen, which they take away, and use chiefly as amulets, for the averting of mischief's.' Hieronymus the Egyptian also who wrote the Phoenician Antiquities, and Manaseas, and a great many more, make mention of the same. Nay, Nico-laus of Damascus, in his ninety-sixth book, hath a particular relation about them; where he speaks thus: 'There is a great mountain in Armenia, over Minyas, called Baris, upon which it is reported that many who fled at the time of the deluge were saved; and that one who was carried in an ark and came on shore upon the top of it; and that the remains of the timber were a great while preserved: this might be the man about whom Moses the legislator of the Jews wrote...
But let no one upon comparing the lives of the ancients with our lives, and with the few years which we now live, think that what we have said of them is false; or make the shortness of our lives at present an argument, that neither did they attain to so long a duration of life, for those ancients were beloved of God, and (lately) made by God himself; and because their food was then fitter for the prolongation of life, might well live so great a number of years; and besides, God afforded them a longer time of life on account of their virtue, and the good use they made of it in astronomical and geometrical discoveries, which would have not afforded the time for foretelling (the periods of the stars), unless they had lived six hundred years, for the great year is completed in that interval.
Now I have for witnesses to what I have said, all those that have written Antiquities, both among the Greeks, and Barbarians; for even Manetho, who wrote the Egyptian history, and Berosus, who collected the Chaldean monuments, and Mochus, Hestiaeus, and besides these Hieronymus the Egyptian, and those that composed the Phoenecian history, agree to what I here say: Hesiod also and Hecataeus, and Hellanicus, and Acuslaus; and besides these Ephorus and Nicolaus relate, that the ancients lived a thousand years. But as to these matters, let every one look upon them as they think fit.
If Josephus is to be trusted (and few ancient historians were more thorough), then the ancients were not inclined to doubt whether or not there had been a great, overwhelming and universal Flood. They may have debated the dating of it. They may have wondered as to which part of Armenia contained the remains of the Ark. And it is known that they did debate the proper names of the survivors of the Ark and the migration patterns which ensued. For instance, the Hebrew gives the leader's name as Noah, whereas the Greek gives it as Noeus and then seemingly combines or confuses the story with an ancient King Deucalion and his wife. The Babylonian account gives the name of the builder of the Ark as Ut-napishtim, and another account gives it as Xisuthrus. Interestingly enough, the Aztecs have a similar story of two persons who survived in a boat which landed on the mountainside after the rain stopped. The Aztec name for the survivor was Coxcox.
Now it also appears that the ancient Chaldeans built ziggar-ats as something more than architectural feats; they built them in response to a pervading Flood psychology. The Chaldeans did not debate whether or not there had been a Flood. They debated whether or not there might be another. And if there were to be another, they would need a place of great elevation for refuge from the flat plain of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. In order to be ready to cope with it, they were going to build mighty mounds for safety. One of these was the Tower of Babel, which, interestingly enough, had an astral temple at its top, the climax of the endeavor:
Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah, a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it was through His means that they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence upon his power. He also said "He would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again;" for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach; and that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers.
Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God; and they built a tower, neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work ... It was built of burnt bricks, cemented together with mortar, made of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit water.
Again it is interesting to note that it was not a historical Flood which they debated; it was the possibility of another one which they feared. And this quotation is also interesting in philosophical ways. It seems that man had his difficulties even in those early post-diluvian days. Among those difficulties was the struggle of the traditional faith of a Holy Creator and Judge versus the corruption of this into idolatry and a humanistic pantheism. Another struggle was the retaining versus the abrogation of personal freedom. As civilization developed in this valley, so also did idolatry and tyranny arise.
And it was this tyranny, but even more particularly the engulfing idolatry in Ur, the jewel of the Chaldees, which provoked Abraham to protest. Josephus gives to us a bit of Abraham's not-so-serene life as a citizen of Ur of the Chaldeans--a recount of some of Abraham's difficulties prior to his migration to Palestine:
Now Abram, having no son of his own, adopted Lot, his brother Haran's son, and his wife Sarai's brother; and he left the land of Chaldea, when he was 75 years old, and at the command of God went into Canaan, and therein he dwelt himself, and left it to his posterity. He was a person of great sagacity, both for understanding all things, and persuading his hearers, and not mistaken in his opinions; for which reason he began to have higher notions of virtue than others had, and he determined to renew and to change the opinion all men happened then to have concerning God; for he was the first to venture to publish the notion that there was but one God, the Creator of the universe; and that as to other gods, if they contributed anything to the happiness of men, that each of them afforded it only according to his appointment, and not by their own power. This his opinion was derived from the irregular phenomena that were visible both at land and sea, as well as those that happened to the sun and moon, and the heavenly bodies thus: 'If (said he) these bodies had power of their own they would certainly take care of their own regular motions ; but since they do not preserve such regularity, they make it plain that so far as they cooperate to our advantage, they do it not of their own abilities, but as they are subservient to him that commands them, to whom alone we ought to justly offer our honor and thanksgiving.'
For such doctrines, then the Chaldeans and the people of Mesopotamia raised a tumult against him, he thought fit to leave that country; at the command, and by the assistance of God, he came and lived in the land of Canaan; and when he was there settled, he built an altar and performed a sacrifice to God!
In Abraham's time, there must have been, even as Josephus indicates, a concern about celestial bodies and their motions and periodicity. Some bodies were observed as regular and predictable; some were observed but their periodicity or predictability was not understood. These early Mesopotamian scholars, in their study of mathematics and the stars, had discovered some of the principles in both geometry and calculus, but so far as it is known, they never grasped the principle of gravitation. It is interesting to note that Newton also studied mathematics and the solar system, and he conceived the idea of universal gravitation after inventing differential calculus, integral calculus, and the binomial theorem--all of which assisted him in his understanding of gravitational law.
Like the Hindus, the Chaldeans drifted into the tendency to worship that part of nature which they failed to understand. They pantheized the planetary system. This is the source of the ancient sky gods which occurred throughout this entire area.
Abraham determined to worship the Almighty, the Creator, and objected to the pantheizing of these bodies into nature worship. The Creator, rather than the created, merited man's worship. Abraham was lonely in his convictions, and he emerges as one of those persistent, stubborn, and even cantankerous individualists of history--a protestor and reformer. He might be classified as a twentieth century B.C. non-conformist who, though his life was filled with difficulties and trials, yet was great among the greatest!
Abraham was concerned about the irregular phenomena which occurred among the heavenly bodies: periodicity, planets, cometary phenomena, and other related conditions. In fact, Josephus relates that when Abraham temporarily migrated to Egypt, he was considered an authority from the Chaldees concerning matters astronomical, historical, and mathematical.
It is being shown in the Psalms that catastrophism is in evidence among many of the portions of the Hebrew scriptures, the Old Testament, just as it is in evidence among the literatures of the non-Hebrew ancients. We have just considered some of Josephus' accounts, and now turn to the Psalms, where again is found the catastrophic motif.
The Psalms date from different periods. Many are Davidic, some are from the period of the Exodus. Among the Exodus Psalms which contain the catastrophic motif are Psalms 46, 68, 74, 78, 97, 104, and 114. The following are excerpts:
like Abraham, was another twentieth century (B.C.) non-conformist. He
lived in the western portion of Arabia. Job's attitude toward
appears to have been similar to that of Abraham, for he also objected to
the pantheizing of the solar system in Arabia. God alone was to be
are other similar passages in the
Book of Job
which discuss the former Flood, the stars, the circuit of heaven, and
the trembling of the crust (pillars) of the Earth. One of the more
interesting portions is found in
A reference has already been seemingly made to the 'Milky Way' (Job 9:9). Here, in chapter 38, Pleiades, Orion, and Arcturus appear to be bodies moving across the zodiac. Among the three, note, Orion was visible with bands. Arcturus was visible apparently with its sons, or luminaries, or satellites. What could this mean? This question is much deeper than might appear on the surface. And what about Mazzaroth and its irregularity versus its periodicity? It is known, for instance, that the Greeks had names for both of the moons of Mars (Deimos and Phobos) which were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall. The Greeks also had a name for a planet, not now extant, named Electra. As has been mentioned in an earlier chapter, the Greeks explained her disappearance from the heavens by saying that she withdrew at the time of one of her conflicts with Ares.
At this juncture we shall consider events some 3,500 years after the time of Job which may shed further light on the circumstances which Job considered and to which we shall return for further consideration.
It is Gulliver's Travels, with its famous story about the Lilliputian, a race of six-inch pygmies, and with its essay about the Laputans, an imaginary race of people on the other side of the world who were more intelligent than the Europeans. They had developed superior telescopes; and with their telescopes they had discovered two moons orbiting around Mars which were unknown to Europeans.
Swift proceeded to describe the circumstances of these mythological moons orbiting about Mars.
In his imaginative essay, Swift stated that the inner moon revolved about Mars faster than the planet itself rotated. Thus, said he, to a Martian it would seem to rise in the west and set in the east. Each of these three sets of conditions comprised the situation discovered some 150 years later by Asaph Hall in 1877.
Swift seemed to be interpreting ancient Greek cosmology rather correctly. He believed that there had been several irregularities in the solar system and at least one had involved Mars. Realizing that large bodies as well as small bodies could travel in eccentric orbits.
original point of departure,
Job, chapter 38,
where Job is discussing "Arcturus and his sons," This portion is
Let us examine the term "Mazzaroth." In Hebrew, "roth" means beard and "mazza" means star. We seem to have here a descriptive term: the 'bearded', or 'hairy' star! This is descriptive of cometary phenomena! Orbits were understood only with difficulty by the ancients. Highly eccentric orbits were the most difficult of all to understand, partly because of the chance of being disturbed by some of the larger and remoter planets, such as Jupiter and Saturn. Comets would disappear into the remote oceans of our solar system, and then they would return with renewed brilliance--sometimes in the same orbit and sometimes not, sometimes on schedule and sometimes not--a generation or so later. Apparently, bodies following highly elliptical orbits at that time were of sufficient mass to threaten and occasionally disturb the Earth!
One or two involvements with a large celestial body and the resulting celestial havoc would be remembered as a dreadful ordeal. An approach of even a major comet would be a dire portent. Fear and wonder of such encounters form the basis of the astrology and the sky-gods of the ancients and reflect the motivation of their astrally oriented religious architecture. For this reason an astral observatory or planetarium was reportedly built at the top of the Tower of Babel. For this reason Stonehenge was built. And this ancient concern for understanding the ordinances of heaven was fully shared by Abraham and Job. One difference, however, was that these early patriarchs were determined to maintain the traditions, the standards, and the faith of their forebears.
Not much is known about him except that he was a heroic warrior. But
people with great gifts can become proud, and that is
probably what happened to Nimrod.
Some consider him the founder of the great, godless Babylonian Empire.
Another great difference, in harmony with the one already described, was the religious determination of the Hebrews to keep records without alteration or loss. Priests and scribes were careful that not one mark of punctuation should be misplaced in the copying of manuscripts. And their emphasis on accurate transcription allowed the scriptures to survive, whereas the valuable Sybilline and Delphine oracles, as well as the Egyptian oracles at Memphis and later Alexandria did not survive the ravages of time.
The Book of Job, therefore, is one of the most profound of all works of literature! It is profound in its spiritual values. It is equally profound in its contemporary observations for that early patriarchal age. Consider, for instance, the animals discussed in the dialogue: the lion, the ass, the cow, the ox, the jackal, and the ostrich. These animals do not exist in Arabia today; rather, they are often found in the savanna grassland climate of East Africa. This is because the climate of Arabia at that time was cooler and more humid since the oceans of the Earth were yet cold from the melting of the ice mass. Because there were cooler oceans, there were cooler planetary wind systems. The climate was more temperate than arid, and there was more rain and less evaporation. This is but one of the many indications that the Ice Epoch was simultaneous with the Flood, a magnetic phase of that global catastrophe.
to a passage in
This particular Eber may be the origin of the word Hebrew; that is to say, Eber was four generations from Noah, even as the aforementioned Nimrod was three generations from Noah. And at this early date, approximately 200 to 300 years after the Flood, it is believed that the ice sheet had substantially melted. The oceans, in receiving this juvenile water, increased and flooded the continental shelves. It was in this age that the seas found their new mean sea level. Rising waters divide lands, as was described, whereas diminishing waters would have united the lands.
Scriptures also state that the southern end of the Dead Sea region (Sodom and Gommorah's hinterland) was well watered, undoubtedly meaning that it was skillfully irrigated. Today this region hardly possesses an itinerant wadi, much less a creek or river. It is one of the hottest and driest parts of the Earth. (Today it is is by clever irrigation system the most advance agriculture) Likewise, rivers are frequently mentioned in Job's Arabia, rivers which are no longer in existence. Snows, also, are occasionally mentioned.
This is another indication of the Ice Epoch and its rather recent demise. What further evidence is required to conclude that the Arabian peninsula, along with other regions in a similar latitude, had a more temperate climate at that time? And does not this suggest an historical shift in climatic zones? And what, then, would be more likely to cause a shift in climatic zones than a shift in the temperatures of the oceans?
For instance, even in Roman times it is recorded that olive groves extended 100 miles into Cirenaica (Eastern Libya). Today, this region has been engulfed by the expanding Sahara desert. It is also well established that the immense Sahara desert is also expanding on its southern flanks in the Sudan. Similarly, it is well recognized that the higher latitude land masses (such as Scandinavia and the Baltic Regions) have experienced a historical warming effect. The reason appears to be that the Ice Epoch was simultaneous with the Floodtide Cataclysm. It took many months for the waters to drain off the Earth. It took many decades and possibly several centuries for the ice to outflow from its concentrations. It took several centuries for the ice to melt sufficiently for the new mean sea level to be achieved. But it took many centuries and, in fact, several millennia, for the ocean to achieve a new temperature equilibrium. And temperatures of the oceans are the primary determinants for the temperatures of the Earth's planetary wind systems. Thus, the shift in historical climatic zones, as indicated in Job and elsewhere, serves as a further evidence of the totality of the Flood and Ice Cataclysm, commonly known as the Biblical Flood.
Throughout the Book of Job evidences of the concern of the ancients about the ordinances of heaven have been found, including planetary movements, lunar movements, cometary movements, and references to the Deluge. Elihu, in his attempts to explain natural and spiritual principles to the stricken Job, and comfort him, acknowledged the wondrous powers of God in nature, as follows: By the breath of God ice is given, and the breadth of the waters is frozen over. (Job 37:10, Amplified)
very likely refers to ice formed climatologically, as are snows and
frosts. However, in the Lord's speech in
found the following, which hardly suggests climatological ice,
especially coming as it does just prior to the discussion of the
constellations, of Mazzaroth, the sons of Arcturus, and of the
ordinances of heaven:
There is ample evidence that civilization after the Flood developed very rapidly, and for reasons. There is ample evidence that not only were the Chaldean ancients well versed in geometry, astronomy, and even in some forms of calculus; there is also ample evidence that they understood a good deal about structural engineering (the Babylonian ziggarats and the Egyptian pyramids serving as illustrations). Further, this study posits that in the age following the Flood-Ice catastrophe, when the ice mass was yet melting and when Chaldean climates were cooler, moister, and more temperate, exploring parties very likely had been sent out and had given reports of the vast icy reaches in the north, where the "face of the deep was yet frozen." Thus, although the Book of Job is profound in its spiritual context, it is equally profound in its historical scope of analyses and observations of matters astronomical, geophysical, climatologically and zoological!
Concerning further observations in matters zoological and astronomical, review God's first speech in Job, chapters 38 and 39. Animals are used broadly, denoting only the regional ecology of that day. In chapters 40 and 41, however, Behemoth and Leviathan are discussed--they have been mistranslated as "hippopotamus" and "crocodile"; they carry a much different meaning.
The detailed descriptions of these two animals, occupying most of two chapters, seems exaggerated and out of place here...
descriptions are not of ordinary animals, as in God's first speech, but
are of two symbolic creatures which played a most significant role in
ancient mythology. The great sea monster was a symbol of the primeval
chaos God had to conquer to bring his creation under control. One of the
earliest stories of the creation was of God's destroying the monster of
the deep, Tiamat, or Rahab, or Leviathan, representing the primeval
chaos, to make the universe an orderly one under his control. This story
is often referred to in ancient apocalyptic literature and occasionally
in the Old Testament.
Today, we use a term called "imagination" to describe something which is conceived, and does in fact exist, but is not easily perceived. We also use a term called "fancy" for something purported to exist which in fact does not. Are these ancient astral mythologies, then, imagination or fancy? It is feared that too often these mythologies have been relegated to mere fancy, whereas they in reality had a core of historical truth involving celestial mechanics. They were the best explanations ancient man could give to describe and understand his times and the causes of catastrophism which troubled his centuries!
Both the capacities and the times of the ancients have been greatly underestimated by the moderns. It has been shown that motifs of cosmological traditions are present on every continent, Antarctica excepted. The astronomical themes inherently correlate with mechanics of the Flood catastrophe. Since the sequence of ancient times is often garbled in ancient legends, folklores, and literatures, and since an understanding of such a sequence is necessary for comprehension of ancient times, here is presented an approximate time scale for post-Diluvian astral catastrophism:
Following the Flood catastrophe, the fifteenth and the eighth centuries B.C. were the ones in which major catastrophes overtook and shook the Earth, providing the major source for fire and brimstone perspectives of the ancients. Other centuries in which catastrophes threatened were the twenty-first, the twelfth, and the eleventh centuries B.C. (Biblical references: Genesis 19, 1 Samuel 7, and II Samuel 24)
Catastrophism has been discussed relative to evidences beyond our planet and evidences within our planet. Catastrophism has been discussed relative to matters gravitational and matters magnetic. Catastrophism has been discussed relative to tides (upheavals) in both oceans of water (hydrosphere) and in oceans of magma (lithosphere).
But the Earth is more than a two-component fluid; it is a three-component fluid. It is composed of hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere, man's essential habitat. A derangement of man's atmospheric environment could be the most profound effect of a cataclysmic period. It is to this subject, that of paleoclimatology and atmosphere, that the next chapter is directed.
Donald W. Patten, a geographer by training and lifelong interest, was born on November 11, 1929, in Conrad, a small town on the high plains of Montana near Glacier National Park. He entered the University of Montana in 1947 and engaged upon a series of studies including ancient history, ancient literature, climatology, genetics, geography, geomorphology, mathematics and philosophy.
While absorbing humanistic viewpoints, he also began to read the Bible, and to reflect upon its claims. In 1948, he experienced conversion to Biblical Christianity, and through a coincidence, was given pulpit duties as a student at a small, rural community church in the village of Lolo. Following his conversion, this further experience in lay preaching and teaching was a most profound influence in his young manhood, coming in the midst of his studies.
Mr. Patten received a B.A, in Geography from the University of Washington in 1951, and an M.A. in Geography in 1962. Mr. Patten and his wife Lorraine have one daughter and six sons.
The biblical flood and ice epoch was conceived in 1960, and has been generated by his interests in various fields of geography, history and science.The Biblical Flood & The Ice Epoch
The author contends that, through the agency of astral principles, the Earth became engaged, or engulfed, in simultaneous gravitational upheavals and magnetic conflicts. There came with suddenness to our fragile, spiraling sphere, THE BIBLICAL FLOOD AND THE ICE EPOCH. Readers of this unique book will find a challenging and refreshing view of ancient catastrophism and its conclusion, Divine Creation, a subject of importance in this age of increasing intellectual rootlessness.
It is over and against the prevailing monopoly of uniformitarian thought (which proposes that oceans of time are necessary for anything and everything, both geologically and biologically) that Mr. Patten proposes his view of historical celestial crises, global catastrophes. Such catastrophes may explain many features about several planets. Such catastrophes, relative to the Earth-Moon system, explain the raising up of mountain ranges, sweeping across the face of the Earth in arcuate alignment, similar to the mountain patterns of the Moon.
This was achieved suddenly, and by tidal upheavals within
the oceans (of centrifugally rotating lava) within the Earth's crust.
Simultaneously, tidal upheavals engulfing the oceans raised tides of
subcontinental dimensions on the Earth's crust, thus the historically
recorded Deluge, or Flood.
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There are several Scientifically organizations involved who gave their permission & their devotion to add their information about this subject on this site; to serve the Lord and to serve you as well! See at list below this site! As editor; Paul van Beek; I really appreciate the author Donald W. Patten & his daughter Judy Fenton for their cooperation to make this site to a reality!
This ministry Scientifically - Teaching’s web site, with many of Biblical Scientifically studies is always freely available for everyone! It is written on series of “Neutral Site’s"! As such, these detailed teaching’s site’s cost a lot of precious time and financial commitment for the authors and the publisher as well! Every study, that takes you for this specific site a few hours scientifically study-material to read, and the pictures according the story, takes many, many hours of work to write, to edit, to design, to modify, to format and technically make available & maintain on the web server! That is the simple reality of the situation!...Paul van Beek See also at: Graphic Design
This "Teaching & Information in the form of a Neutral" site of “Science of Noah' Flood” is created
The biblical flood and ice epoch was conceived in 1960, and has been
generated by his interests in various fields of geography, history and
verses out of the Dake's annotated Reference Bible (KGV) + Note's