1. Geophysical Perspective of Our Small Sphere!
This study contends that there was a universal, global Flood, and that it was caused by the interacting gravities of two astronomical bodies of planetary dimensions--the Earth and the 'astral visitor'. Since the Earth possesses two fields, one gravitational and the other magnetic, there were two kinds of celestial conflict with the intruder. It appears that in one phase of this conflict, oceans heaved and ebbed in tides to a magnitude of 5,000 and perhaps 10,000 feet above and below mean sea level!
The Earth is a triple fluid; not merely a single fluid. Each of the three fluids would be in tidal upheaval simultaneously. The Earth has some 200,000,000 cubic miles of water, but this is but a drop in the bucket compared to its volume of semi-fluid magma (or lava)! The Earth has a thin crust, varying between 5 and 30 miles thick. This is quite thin when compared to the Earth's diameter, about 8,000 miles. The ratio of thickness between the Earth's crust to the magma varies between 1:300 and 1:1600, something like an onionskin to an onion!
The Earth contains about 200 times as much water as atmosphere, mass to mass. The Earth contains about 1,000 times as much magma as ocean, volume to volume. And the magma is heavier. Thus there is about 5,000 times as much magma as ocean, ton by ton, or kilogram by kilogram. This gives an idea of comparisons. If we conclude that tidal activity of the oceans resulted in some 2 tons of pressure per square inch on the external side of the Earth's surface, what would be the force or the up-thrust of the vastly greater magma upon the inside of the Earth's crust or skin?
The upward thrust of the magma upon the inner side of the Earth's crust must have been titanic due to the following three conditions:
Any fluid, when constricted, will exhibit a greater thrust. With respect to tides, two good examples are found in the Bay of Fundy (Nova Scotia) and the Thames Estuary (London). Here tidal forces are gathered and amplified due to the particular latitudes and the particular coastal physical geographies. Here tidal forces are amplified to an extent of being some 15 to 25 times as high as they are in the open oceanic locations of lower latitudes.
The fluid ocean is unconfined; the fluid magma is completely confined. This affects the gathering or concentration of thrust in certain belts or regions. Also the nature of water as a fluid is somewhat different than magma as a fluid. At high temperatures, magma becomes increasingly fluid, and at lower temperatures, it becomes increasingly viscous!
Iron, for instance, at surface temperatures, is brittle. However at higher temperatures, iron becomes as flexible as a leather belt. At yet higher temperatures, in its molten form, it will easily pour. At the high temperatures inside the Earth, magma has a nature which is neither exactly like a fluid, nor exactly like a solid. It is described as "plastic-like." It is something like asphalt, beeswax, honey or molasses. It will flow, but at retarded rates.
major forces acting upon Earth's crust
Dealing here with the effect of an introduced gravitational force upon the magma, and the reaction of the magma upon the inside of the Earth's crust!
Due to the centrifugal force of a rotating sphere, angular momentum occurs along with the force of gravity. The Earth is an oblate sphere with the polar diameter being some 27 miles shorter than the equatorial diameter. This bulge is due to the speed of the Earth's rotation. The Earth's crust, at the equator rotates a little over 1,000 miles per hour, and the magma directly under it has a similar velocity. All magma in the various regions within the Earth has an angular momentum somewhere between these two extremes of 0 and 1,000 miles per hour depending on location.
The effect of the introduced force was to cause a new oblateness or bulge, of great dimensions. A second effect of the force was an induced drag on the magma in centrifugal rotation. The drag was effected in an arcuate, sweeping pattern on the inside of the Earth's crust.
Thus there were two vitally important but distinct factors,
In addition to these factors, it must be kept in mind that the Earth's thin crust or skin is considered to be as flexible as a man's leather belt. It was the give and take between these forces being alternately exerted and released within the Earth's crust upon which the explanation rests. This give and take, or alternating exertion and releasing upon the inside of the Earth's flexible crust explains both
With these factors in mind
A new oro-graphical theory (mountain building) is about to be set forth, based on the historical probability of astronomical conflict. It reveals the origin of these great orographical systems which span our planet, and form the backbone for several continents!
2. Approaches To Orogenesis
During the last 100 years, seven major theories of orogenesis have been propounded. They are listed as follows:
Several things should be noted regarding these seven theories, and their various methods in endeavoring to handle the problem of an adequate explanation for mountain-building. Note that
Still among many modern thinking assumptions that mountain uplifts only caused by: (1) a local in scope, (2) ancient in terms of multiplied millions of years, (3)caused exclusively by conditions within the Earth's crust, oceans and atmosphere. This has lead to a serious error! Which has overruled and ignored astral catastrophism as a possible explanation without even revealing reasons of substance for the rejection. Astral catastrophism is a possible and probable explanation of ancient upheavals which resulted in our terrestrial patterns of mountain systems; it explains this and much more!
Considering astral catastrophism will be an initial step,
if not the step, to offering substantial explanation for orogenesis and
the geographical pattern thereof. Society has left it up to the
earth-oriented geologist to determine the prime cause for orogenesis.
Prior to analyzing this subject, it should be recalled that the mountain ranges of the Earth are significantly similar to the pattern of those of the Moon. Both ranges have a series of arc-like curves, although those on the Earth are more elongated. Both ranges contain dendrite patterns. In fact, the mountains of both bodies are also similar in their elevation (although the Moon is about 1/80 of the mass of the Earth and 1/50 of the volume of the Earth). Astronomers have noted this, and have suggested that similar processes were involved in their formation. This should prove to be a good clue, even though the two regions are some 240,000 miles distant!
Mountains might have been scattered across the face of the Earth in one or two of many different possible patterns, depending on cause of orogenesis. Among the possible patterns are the following: Figure 6[
Figure 6 illustrates the mountain arcs of the world on a global basis.
Of these eleven possible patterns, the fourth listed pattern is the pattern of recent mountain uplifts, with a qualification. Mountain arcs occur, spread across the Earth's surface. It is not the mountain arcs, specifically, which occur in great circle patterns. Rather it is the location of the epicenters of the mountain arcs which, when connected in series, presents a great circle lineal pattern. The great circle pattern does not exist once, but rather twice. One system is the Circum-Pacific, and the other is the Alpine-Himalayan. Figure 6 illustrates. (Further research on sub-oceanic mountain systems, currently being described and plotted, may reveal further arcs, curves and great circles.)
1. The mountain systems of the Earth are found in great scallop-like arcs, which in turn merge into greater arcs, which in turn merge into sweeping, planet-traversing circles. Their pattern seemingly is indifferent to either continental massifs or to oceanic basins; they traverse either with equal ease. This is illustrated particularly in the regions of the Western Pacific, with the numerous island chains, which are the tops of submerged mountain arcs.
2. Mountain systems possess dendritic patterns with auxiliary ranges, and spur ranges, separated by valleys and basins. The relationship of the main range to the auxiliary ranges is somewhat like the grain of the stock of a Christmas tree to its branches, and is particularly observable to mountain-climbers with their advantageous, panoramic views.
3. Mountain systems often occur in parallelism--that is to say that major systems are frequently parallel. The Cascades and the Rockies are one example, the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental are another example. The Himalayas and the Kun Luns are a third example. Other examples are too numerous to mention.
The recent uplifts occur in series, in scallop-like arrangements and in great circles. (Figure 6) The great circle alignment is formed by drawing a line through the epicenters of the arcs, often 1,000 miles from the uplift itself, and located amid broad, undulating plains, and not by drawing a line between the mountain ranges themselves. If viewed from our Moon, or man-made satellites, or some other proximate position in space near the Earth, this would appear as a straight line crossing both latitudes and longitudes. This direct alignment suggests that mountain uplifts occurred
The Circum-Pacific uplift includes arcs which begin in Antarctica and follow the rim of the Pacific Ocean through the Western Americas, and along the eastern ridges of Asia to Indonesia. This is the so-called "Pacific Rim of Fire." It is a zone of both earthquake activity and volcanic activity, indicating that isostatic adjustments of the Earth's crust in this zone are yet being achieved; the same applies to the Alpine-Himalayan cycle. This is indicative of recentness!
In our hypothesis herein set forth, a series of line diagrams is given, which illustrates a possible model--an astronomical model--for the cause of the global catastrophe. The 'astral intruder' is shown in relation to the solar system, the Earth and the Moon.It is also shown with respect to the Earth's magnetic field.
Any adequate theory of orogenesis must explain the alignment of mountain systems, traversing the face of the Earth. It should also explain the similarity to the lunar mountains. But in addition, it must be able to account specifically for many kinds or types of stresses which obviously have been involved, and not just one or two kinds. This includes many types of vertical movements and horizontal movements. This also includes several kinds of formations.
Logically the approaching gravitational force caused a new bulge upon the Earth's surface, due to the magnitude of the new gravitational field. The new gravity exerted a pulling or lifting force upon the rotating magma, but also exerted a drag on the velocity of the magma as it centrifugally rotated around the Earth's axis.
There were new pressures caused by the tides of magma, pressures which required new adjustments and new releases. Among the new adjustments were welts or wrinkles or uplifts upon the Earth's thin skin, uplifts including both igneous and sedimentary rock alike, and in arcuate or scallop-like alignments. Another adjustment was the release of pressure by the bleeding of lava (magma) out upon the Earth's crust, forming basaltic plateaus and volcanic cones. The surging, throbbing, pulsating magma, rising to two mighty crescendoes each day, tortured the inside of the Earth's skin with a bellows-like periodicity.
The stresses must have been tremendous from the inside of the Earth; simultaneously the face of the Earth was washed twice every 24l/2hours by continental tides. In addition rain (intense rain--Genesis 7:12) also occurred, further rinsing the Earth's face. Under these conditions, if water compression on the Earth's surface at "sea level" resulted in pressures exceeding two tons per square inch, pressures perhaps 100 to 10,000 times greater occurred from within. The Earth's crust was thus tortured from within and without simultaneously.
The formation of arcuate uplifts may be accounted for in terms of the rotation of our sphere simultaneously with tidal movements of the magma. It is noticed that many of the mountain systems in the Alpine-Himalayan and Circum-Pacific Belts are parallel. The astral intruder interacted with the Earth, and revolved around the Earth in a binary manner for some 8 months, and was drawn out beyond the Earth-Moon system by the Sun. This then lays the basis for explaining the repeated parallel ranges of orogenetic uplift on a rotating planet, along with parallel and offsetting crustal trenches. Their great circle geographical pattern merely reflects the astrophysical (gravitational) nature of their cause.
Similarly, it assists in explaining the many repeated layers of alluvium, repeatedly laid down and compressed in sharply separated series, forming vertical sequences. In this way, two types of vertical movements are simultaneously explained.
Both vertical movements include shifts of fluid, namely:
Both are explained as responses to the same gravitational interaction; both are explained as simultaneous; both parallel geological observations; both parallel elementary astrophysical principles! Vertical movements are thus explained!
Horizontal relationships across the Earth's surface also must be recognized! The realization is that the Earth was in constant rotation, and the bulge zone (both facing toward and facing opposite the visitor) constantly shifted within the same zone of uplift. This principle assists in understanding the very apparent and very consistent horizontal parallelism of mountain ranges.
Ç Figure 7 illustrates Western North America from Alaska to Mexico. Here occur differing types and heights of mountain curves. Some are primary and some are secondary; some are sedimentary and some are volcanic. Offsetting trenches are also found, parallel to the mountain arcs.
Figure 6 illustrates the mountain arcs of the world on a global basis. Figures 7 through 11 illustrate the mountain arcs of the world, region by region and continent by continent. They reflect recurring patterns around the world. Figure 12 then further illustrates these arcs on a sub-regional scale.
Figure 7 illustrates Western North America from Alaska to Mexico. Here occur differing types and heights of mountain curves. Some are primary and some are secondary; some are sedimentary and some are volcanic. Offsetting trenches are also found, parallel to the mountain arcs.
Figure 8 [ illustrates South American mountain arcs. The same kinds of uplifts again occur. However here is a further illustration of a reverse arc (the Caribbean region), similar to the reverse arc of the South Sandwich Islands (Fig. 6).
Figure 9 gives this arc-like alignment in Southern Eurasia. This area includes the "roof of the world," the Himalayan group, with their associated ranges. It also includes the Ararat-Cauca-sus-Elburz group, where the Ark was grounded, according to the Genesis account.
Figure 10 gives this arc-like alignment for Melanesia, an area mostly inundated with water. In this region, some of the deepest trenches of the Earth's crust are found, and they too are associated with mountain uplifts, with which they are parallel.
Figure 11 illustrates the great, sweeping mountain arcs for East Asia.
Figure 12, the echelon structures of the East Asian Arcs, illustrates these same trends as seen on a sub-regional scale.
Z Figure 9 gives this arc-like alignment in Southern Eurasia. This area includes the "roof of the world," the Himalayan group, with their associated ranges. It also includes the Ararat-Cauca-sus-Elburz group, where the Ark was grounded, according to the Genesis account.
Thus it is demonstrated that mountains are not dispersed in a random pattern over the surface of the Earth. They are strung out; something like the way a string of lights is hung around a Christmas tree, hanging from branch to branch, in arcuate curves. The entire pattern is suggestive of counter-dominating gravities, viscous, fluid magmas, and a rotating sphere. If tidal mechanisms uplifted the mountain systems of the Earth as well as the oceans at the time of the Flood, then the geography of both hemispheres has been drastically reorganized by this celestial event.
Figure 10 [ gives this arc-like alignment for Melanesia, an area mostly inundated with water. In this region, some of the deepest trenches of the Earth's crust are found, and they too are associated with mountain uplifts, with which they are parallel.
Figure 11 illustrates the great, sweeping mountain arcs for East Asia. Figure 12, the echelon structures of the East Asian Arcs, illustrates these same trends as seen on a sub-regional scale.
4. The Lunar
structures of the East Asian Arcs, illustrates these same trends as seen
on a sub-regional scale.
At the very least, the similarity of the pattern of mountain ranges, plus the similarity in their elevations, suggest a similar kind of orogenesis with the mountain systems of the Earth. The assumption has been that the Moon was more solid and less plastic-like in its internal structure than the Earth. This has recently been questioned, due to the report of some observed volcanic activity. Perhaps the Moon, like its Binary Partner, is also composed of much fluid magma. If so, the possibility is that the Moon's mountain-building processes may be similar with those of the Earth; they also may be simultaneous in timing. With all of these aforementioned features considered conjointly the whole picture becomes historically more credible (and scientifically more apparent).
understanding of the forces which have sculptured our fluid sphere must
accommodate many qualifications, not few. Some of the qualifications are
major; others are minor; all are significant. Those qualifications which
are major to some will be minor to others, and those minor to some will
be major to others, depending on their backgrounds and disciplines.
However, all the qualifications, not just some, must be adequately met
in order to propose an adequate and helpful theory on orogenesis.
To sum up, it is almost inevitable to admit that the physiographic evidence regarding features on the Earth's surface is such that it must be assumed that some parts of the Earth's crust have been subject to compression (crustal shortening), others have been subject to tension (mid-ocean rifts) and yet others to shearing (fracture zones). Most theories have been proposed for the purpose of explaining only one of these features and are therefore inadequate with regard to the others. A theory of orogenesis, to be acceptable, must be flexible enough to allow for compression, tension, and shear of sufficient magnitude to be produced in the Earth's crust. It appears, therefore, that the problem of finding the causes of the various geodynamic features must be regarded as still unsolved.
The following is a list of 14 specific qualifications for an adequate theory of orogenesis; four are considered as major or overriding in importance, while the importance of the other ten qualifications is not to be deemphasized. Major considerations for orogenesis include explanations for:
It is therefore necessary to re-examine all theories of orogenesis that have ever been invented, in order to determine what can be saved of them in the light of the presently available facts. If this is done, it becomes immediately obvious that something fundamental is wrong with each and every one of the theories.
In the theory of astral catastrophism, most (and indeed the author thinks all) of these clear specifications are adequately answered. Certainly the specifications involving parallelism are apparent. Certainly the mechanisms involving force are met. Certainly the features of simultaneous magma and watery tidal upheaval are inherent. Incidentally (but not coincidentally) the genesis of the lunar formations are also in focus.
In this theory of astral catastrophism, it is conceived that the astral visitor was involved with the Earth-Moon system for several months; it did not graze the Earth just temporarily. It perhaps revolved around the Earth twice, bringing repeated crescendoes and diminuendos to the Earth's surface as it rotated in chaos. As Job suggested, the "pillars of the Earth trembled." With each approach, a new zone of horizontal uplift occurred (the Circum-Pacific first; the Alpine-Himalayan second). And with each rotation during crisis, there occurred a new range of horizontal uplift, or a further movement of a prior uplift. Series after series of sediment was simultaneously deposited and/or compressed. (Picture Source: Nasa; Planet Earth from planet Mars' view!)
Thus in the view of astral catastrophism, one section of the Alps may have been uplifted one day; another section may have been uplifted a few days or even weeks later. But the time lapse was measured in hours, days and weeks, and not in terms of millions, tens and hundreds of millions of Lyellian years!
This is the second of three chapters dealing with catastrophism and the Earth's three fluid components 1.hydrosphere, 2. lithosphere 3. atmosphere. The approach of astral catastrophism cuts across lines of many disciplines, from one horizon almost to the other. It begins with the physical sciences and basic astral premises. The conflict which occurred produced conditions, effects and patterns which were vital to the re-establishment of biological life, and hence to the natural sciences.
Effects of thinking in the natural sciences have come to have immense effects in the social sciences. Among the many disciplines which are involved in this approach are astronomy, astrophysics, ancient literature, climatology, geography, geology, history, folklores and anthologies, anthropology, zoogeography and historical ethnology (survival patterns).
The catastrophic theory as contained herein, will attempt to answer some questions, and it will perhaps give rise to many more! The catastrophic theory will no doubt give rise to controversy in the geological profession. The catastrophic theory as presented is not offered as being in any sense anti-geological; rather it presents to geology some new and exciting horizons to traverse, after it arises out of its comfortable of thinking! (anti-spiritual & anti-scientific)
Tides, whether of oceans or magma, are a response to a gravitational interaction of two or more fields of gravity. The Flood and the orogenetic upheaval were different phases of the counter-dominating gravities.
However, in addition to the field of gravity, the Earth also possesses a magnetic field. The magnetic field would be in counter-dominating interaction with the magnetic field of the visitor. The Ice Epoch, it is posited, was primarily related to the magnetic phase of this cataclysm. Could it be that the Ice Epoch was part and parcel of this same catastrophe? Could it be that the Flood and the Ice Epoch were simultaneous in their enveloping of the Earth?
Following the Flood catastrophe, new equilibriums were reached. It took the waters many weeks, and even months, to drain off. The zones of mountain uplift continued quaking for years and decades, even centuries, as a new isostatic equilibrium gradually was established. It took centuries for the ice masses to outflow and melt. And as the ice masses melted, they fed icy cold water into the oceans, keeping the oceans at an abnormally low temperature. And it took dozens of centuries for the oceans to gradually find a new equilibrium of temperature.
It was in this earlier postdiluvian period, when ice was out-flowing over the Flood stratigraphical, that geological ice scourings were achieved. And it was in the early postdiluvian period that the oceans, and the Earth's wind systems were much lower in temperature than they are now. This, then, was a cool, even a cold era, and it continued until new hydrographical and climatic equilibriums were gradually reached.
Nevertheless, the origin of the mountain uplifts, the Flood, and the Ice Epoch were simultaneous and celestial. It is to this second and equally important phase of the catastrophe, the glacial phase, to which in: "The Cause of the Ice Epoch" (6) is directed.
Donald W. Patten, a geographer by training and lifelong interest, was born on November 11, 1929, in Conrad, a small town on the high plains of Montana near Glacier National Park. He entered the University of Montana in 1947 and engaged upon a series of studies including ancient history, ancient literature, climatology, genetics, geography, geomorphology, mathematics and philosophy.
While absorbing humanistic viewpoints, he also began to read the Bible, and to reflect upon its claims. In 1948, he experienced conversion to Biblical Christianity, and through a coincidence, was given pulpit duties as a student at a small, rural community church in the village of Lolo. Following his conversion, this further experience in lay preaching and teaching was a most profound influence in his young manhood, coming in the midst of his studies.
Mr. Patten received a B.A, in Geography from the University of Washington in 1951, and an M.A. in Geography in 1962. Mr. Patten and his wife Lorraine have one daughter and six sons.
The biblical flood and ice epoch was conceived in 1960, and has been generated by his interests in various fields of geography, history and science.The Biblical Flood & The Ice Epoch
The author contends that, through the agency of astral principles, the Earth became engaged, or engulfed, in simultaneous gravitational upheavals and magnetic conflicts. There came with suddenness to our fragile, spiraling sphere, THE BIBLICAL FLOOD AND THE ICE EPOCH. Readers of this unique book will find a challenging and refreshing view of ancient catastrophism and its conclusion, Divine Creation, a subject of importance in this age of increasing intellectual rootlessness.
It is over and against the prevailing monopoly of uniformitarian thought (which proposes that oceans of time are necessary for anything and everything, both geologically and biologically) that Mr. Patten proposes his view of historical celestial crises, global catastrophes. Such catastrophes may explain many features about several planets. Such catastrophes, relative to the Earth-Moon system, explain the raising up of mountain ranges, sweeping across the face of the Earth in arcuate alignment, similar to the mountain patterns of the Moon.
This was achieved suddenly, and by tidal upheavals within
the oceans (of centrifugally rotating lava) within the Earth's crust.
Simultaneously, tidal upheavals engulfing the oceans raised tides of
subcontinental dimensions on the Earth's crust, thus the historically
recorded Deluge, or Flood.
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The biblical flood and ice epoch was conceived in 1960, and has been
generated by his interests in various fields of geography, history and
verses out of the Dake's annotated Reference Bible (KGV) + Note's