Noah' Flood Disastor

Old Testament's Catastrophism
Christian Science & Archeology
The flood has been pictured as having been caused only by excessive rain?!


Noah's Flood
The flood has been pictured as having been caused
by excessive rain?!


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Christian Science

Subjects on this web-page:
W. Patten(4)
È Contents   È
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  The flood has been pictured as having been caused only by excessive rain?!
  1. Location of the Grounded Ark: Its Elevation!
  The Location of the Ark.. (Anchor-stone)
  2. Location of the Grounded Ark: Its Heartland Location
  The Logging of the Sequence of Events (3)
T The action of the raising waters in the Genesis account! (Table- frame work!)
The chronology of the Biblical flood - Genesis  (table- frame work!)(Span of time!)
  4. World-wide Circumstances of Sedimentary Strata
  5. The Fountains of the Deep (Oceans)
  6. The Behavior of the Animals
  About the author Donald W. Patten & his scientifically written book!
  The Biblical Flood & The Ice Epoch
  Biblical Scientifically studies are always freely available ...!
Subjects are on the other related web-pages È Contents

Noah's Flood
Chapters on other related web-pages:

Old Testament's Catastrophism - Christian Science & Archeology
òClick on other Chapter-web-links! ò
The remarkable history of Catastrophism! (by Donald W. Patten ©)(2)
Past Astral or Celestial Catastrophism! (3)
The flood has been pictured as having been caused only by excessive rain?!
W. Patten(4)
Interacting gravities of two astronomical bodies of planetary dimensions:
The nature of the Earth's Ice Epoch! W. Patten © (6)
The Effects of the catastrophe for planet Earth! W. Patten © (7)
Ancient threatening astral catastrophes continued to plague mankind! W. Patten © (8)
The Pre-flood Earthly climatically conditions!    W. Patten © (9)
Gigantism Before the Noah's flood!  W. Patten © (10)
Yahweh's Covenant of preservation to Noah! (by Paul van Beek)
Important other related site-links!

Other Book of W. Patten

The flood has been pictured as having been caused only by excessive rain?!
W. Patten(4)

The Tidal Nature of the Biblical Flood 4
Rain was NOT the primary cause of the Flood!








The flood has been pictured as having been caused only by excessive rain?

W. Patten(4)

SO OFTEN THE FLOOD has been pictured as having been caused only by excessive rain. There is no better example of this than Josephus, who, never imagining any other possibility, commented as follows:  

"When G-d gave the signal, and it began to rain, the water poured down forty entire days, till it became fifteen cubits higher than the earth; which was the reason why there were no greater number preserved, since they had no place to flee to. When the rain ceased, the water did just begin to abate . . ."

If the catastrophic point of view is correct, with an extra-terrestrial gravitational field approaching and affecting the Earth, then the global idea of a tidal Flood also appears very logical. If the Flood had been a local phenomenon, then any flooding must be based on climatologically principles, which means rain. If the Flood were a global phenomenon, and of an immense magnitude, then oceans, gravities and tidal mechanisms were inevitably involved!

Now if the Flood had been a local phenomenon, then the accounts of an overwhelming flood might presumably have come in from one or two particular regions or localities of the Earth. Yet the accounts of an ancient Flood of continental proportions persist in over 40 different cultures in each hemisphere.

Similarly, water-lain strata occurs on a global scale, and at almost every elevation, both above and below mean sea level. These facts remain indeed unexplained if a local flood concept is to be accepted. Evidences of a World Flood of continental dimensions occur both in the traditions of man and in the fossils and strata of his terrestrial domain. Furthermore, evidences of former gravitational interactions and tidal responses occur among other planets.

If the Flood were merely a minor climatologically event of local significance, then nothing in all of ancient literature is more curious than the scope and the sweep of the details in this particular account of the Flood given in Genesis (Chapters 6-9). The ideas, implications, and perspectives contained in this account are very thought-provoking. It teaches that the rain was associated with the Flood, but not that rain was the primary cause of the Flood. The two phenomena were merely simultaneous.

Before we enter into a discussion of the particulars of the Biblical Flood, the validity of the Genesis account warrants comment. Here we may have an eye witness account, related and handed down, not unlike eye witness accounts found later in Genesis. Later examples include Joseph's experience in Potiphar's house in Egypt, Abraham's experience on Mt. Moriah, and Isaac's courtship of Rebekah. A fourth illustration is the Flood story, with its precise and detailed account.

Note the manner of the logging of the events. Note also the details concerning

The pitching of the ark (Genesis 7:17),
The details of the dove
(Genesis 8:7),
The raven
(Genesis 8:8),
The olive branch
(Genesis 8:11),
The rainbow
(Genesis 9:13).

Here we have a near eye witness account which has been preserved. Other ancient accounts of this catastrophe seem to have been preserved with much less precision. On this basis, details can be gleaned from the Genesis story from which valid conclusions and implications may be drawn, if coupled with an adequate geophysical background.

The proposition herein set forth is that the Flood was caused by tidal movements of the oceans, tides in sub-continental proportion. Rain was also involved, but its ratio was the proverbial drop in the bucket. By carefully considering the several facets of the Flood story, and by then weighing the following reasons in tandem against the uniformitarian presupposition, a strong position may be achieved to draw firm and significant conclusions.

1. Location of the Grounded Ark: Its Elevation!

And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth. And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters. And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat. (Genesis 7:17-20; 8:4, King James)
FIGURE 4: The Heartland Region of the Eastern Hemisphere! [

The record of the Hebrews, corroborated by other Middle Eastern traditions, is that the Ark was grounded high in the Ararat-Caucasus-Elburz region. The elevations in this complex rise to 17,000 feet at their greatest heights. Much of the elevation is 8,000 and 10,000 feet above mean sea level. In fact, the topography of this region may be a clue as to the magnitude of the tides of the Flood era.

This region of Armenia today is controlled politically by three nations: Iran, Russia and Turkey. Here are a number of interior basins which have no outlet to the sea. They contain brackish lakes, three of which are rather large, inland lakes. These lakes represent the lower elevations in this region, and they can be considered as the lowest or the minimum elevation at which the ark was grounded.

The largest of these three lakes is Lake Urmia, in Iran. It is 4,364 feet above sea level. The next largest is Lake Van, in Turkey, at an elevation of 5,260 feet. The third is Lake Gokcha (Lake Sevan), in Russian Armenia. It is at an elevation of 6,345 feet above mean sea level.

With the bulk of the topography in this region being above 8,000 feet in elevation, it is not difficult to suppose that the grounding of the Ark was at an elevation approaching 10,000 feet above sea level. The ultimate resting place of the Ark has not been finally identified. Josephus reported that in his time, it had been scavenged for fetishes.

The language in Genesis Chapter 7 refers to waters which increased . . . increased greatly . . . and prevailed upon the whole (visible) Earth. The waters flooded valleys, plains, plateaus and apparently mountains. This is indicative that counter-gravity or a second gravity acting contrary to the gravity of the Earth, was involved in these tidal upheavals.

Tidal conditions and effects of a low magnitude are well-known, for our Moon and Sun cause modest tides on ocean beaches. Tides have the effect of both raising and lowering waters and of both raising, moving and grounding driftwood at or near high tide. The Ark is viewed as a piece of driftwood, an oversized barge--floating on tidal movements of sub continental magnitude.

In such a picture the Ark would logically be stranded or grounded at or near high tide. In such a picture, it would logically be caught and grounded within a topographical barrier such as a hedge or ridge of mountains.

Had the Flood been caused by rain exclusively, the Ark (something like the Queen Mary in dimension but not in shape) would not have been floated at all. Yet had it been floated, its direction of flotation would have been downward, not upward, and toward sea level rather than toward a high group of mountains. Thus both the altitude and the rough topography, the mountainous hedge, are both significant in pointing to the tidal nature of the Biblical Flood.

The floating of the Ark to the Ararat Mountain region as an utter impossibility, when its depend only for rain and just does not accomplish this sort of thing! The magnitude of tidal movement could have accomplished it! For instance, the tidal sweep which swamps a sand castle at the sea shore could also swamp the Alps, Andes, Pyrenees or Ararats. It is only a matter of magnitude or degree; it is not a matter of lack of mechanism. This again is a reflection of the intensity of the gravitational conflict which must have prevailed.

So far, we have noted the location of the grounded Ark with respect solely to its elevation and rough topography in the Ararat Mountains. Of equal importance is the location of the Ark with respect to its Heartland Location.

The Location of the Ark.. 

The Bible does provide a general location for the landing site, but not a specific mountain peak.  It simply says, "The Ark came to rest upon the MOUNTAINS of Ararat". The original indicates it came to rest in the REGION of Urartu.  (The area we call Ararat today)
Believed is that one ofthe very positive result from the traditions that developed was the preservation of the remains, tradition actually led explorers away from the authentic site.  Also, God worked in a miraculous way to preserve the remains for this generation.  He simply hid it from human sight, until 1948.
One of the most fundamental reasons why the Ark could not have landed on Ararat is that the mountain had not developed to it's present height.  Most Geologists will tell you the evidence indicates that the peak we call Ararat, is only 2,000 or less years in development.  This means that it was not the dominant feature in the area 4,400 years ago, that it most obviously is today.  And we know the flood waters were not over 17,000 ft in height as they would have needed to be, in order for the Ark to land on that mountain.
The mountain's development is due to volcanism, large lava domes are still present even today indicating major activity in the last 500 years.  In 1848 the north west face blew out creating the Ahora Gorge, which interestingly is where most explorers search, and many claims have been made concerning evidence. The mountain is also very active, especially at about 14,000 ft as it is Turkey's second largest glacier. With all this development and movement over the centuries IF the Ark had landed there it would have been ground to pieces and totally destroyed. But God had other ideas in its preservation, and so he secured the Ark at a location that would allow its partial survival for this last generation. Also, Scripture indicates God used a strong wind to dry the waters from the Earth, the Ark would have needed to be in a harbor environment to survive that process, it would have been too exposed on the top or side of a large mountain.

With the tradition of the Ark being somewhere on the mountain, over the centuries individuals and locals have constructed various shrines or buildings there. So, it is not unusual to find wood fragments on the mountain, also, to keep the tradition alive, (for economic purposes), some have taken wood up the mountain, buried it in the snow, and retrieved it at a later date, claiming to have found wood at a certain elevation. This keeps the illusion alive and many come to continue the search.  The fact is there has never been any petrified carboniferous wood found on the mountain!
The environment before the flood was much different than today.  The archaeological record clearly reveals one universal temperature, greater oxygen levels, stronger electro-magnetic field, plus other advantages. The planet was like a large hyperbaric chamber, prolific for growth, thus the size of the people, animals, and vegetation were astounding.  One consideration for us is the growing season for the trees. Before the great flood, Scripture indicates the lack of rain as we experience today. So, the wet/dry seasons that we experience today almost world-wide did not occur. This means that the wood used in the construction of the Ark would have a grain consistent to that of stone, we would not observe the typical rings that we see today in most trees. 
Though we find a lack of evidence from the mountain and the theory that the mountain was not even there 4,400 years ago, still the search goes on.  This illustrates the power of tradition.

For just 15 miles south-east in the region of Urartu, we find the remains of the hull of a man-made ship, the dimensions which correlate to those given in the Bible, made of Gopher wood, (Laminated petrified carboniferous wood), with evidence that it was a floating zoo. 

2. Location of the Grounded Ark:
Its Heartland Location

The finding of Noah's ark
By Judy Fenton; Daughter of Donald W. Patton

The Ark was not floated down the Tigris or Euphrates and out into the Persian Gulf or the Indian Ocean. It was not floated down the Nile, Jordan, Indus or Volga, nor did it float out into the sea, be it the Black, the Caspian, the Mediterranean, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea or any of the oceans. Neither was it stranded on a low-lying range of coastal hills. Moreover, it was not grounded on an interior plateau, such as the Anatolian or Iranian Plateaus. The Ark was not stranded at or even near any maritime location.

Rather, the Ark was stranded in the second highest complex of mountains in the Eastern Hemisphere, an area second in elevation only to the Mighty Himalayas and its associated ranges. This interior region of Eurasia has been termed by early political geographers as the "Heartland" region of the Eastern Hemisphere.

Consider, therefore, the broadness of the Flood. The Eurasian land mass is the largest one on the face of our planet. It comprises about 57% of the land area of the world, including its African appendage. The Ark was grounded in the heart of this region: about 2,000 miles from the Arabian Sea, an arm of the Indian Ocean; about 2,500 miles from the Barents Sea, an arm of the Arctic Ocean; some 3,000 miles from the Atlantic Ocean; and some 5,000 miles from the Pacific Ocean.

The fact that the Ark was grounded in this heartland location similarly attests to the perspective that the Flood was tidal in nature! Had the Flood been caused by atmospheric precipitation, the Ark would have been floated downward and in response solely to the gravity of the Earth. Furthermore, any rain which fell would have been concentrated in maritime regions.

Noah has sometimes been referred to as a North Dakota sailor. His boat was a barge, and not a ship or a vessel. It apparently was not constructed at a maritime location, and it was not constructed for sailing; it was constructed for floating. Consider the Ark, rising and bounding on tidal waves of sub-continental proportions, by the following illustration of the humble tumble-weed.

On the high plains of Northern Montana in late summer, the tumbleweeds become very dry. They break off and are picked up by the hot August breezes. They roll and bounce, and bounce and roll, until they finally become caught, perhaps on a barbed wire fence, perhaps in some sage brush, or a snow fence. So it must have been with the Ark, which, like an oversized piece of driftwood or a tumbleweed, bounded along in sub-continental tides until it was caught in a topographical fence, the mountains of Ararat. This is one of the numerous reflections of the magnitude of the Flood. It is also a reflection of the global scope of the Flood catastrophe. Let us briefly consider the possibility that significance may occur in the sequence of the logged events.

3. The Logging of the Sequence of Events
The action of the raising waters in the Genesis account:
Various parts of the Genesis account yield the following phrasing concerning the action of the waters:
(by Donald W. Patten © Chapter 4)
Genesis 7:17-20

The flood [that is, the downpour of rain] was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased and bore up the ark, and it was lifted [high] above the land. (It rose above the earth) And the waters became mighty and increased greatly upon the land, and the ark went [gently floating] upon the surface of the waters. And the waters prevailed so exceedingly {and} were so mighty upon the earth that all the high hills under the whole sky were covered. [In fact] the waters became fifteen cubits higher, as the high hills were covered. (The waters rose higher and higher on the earth so that all the highest mountains everywhere under the heavens were covered!) (Genesis 7:17-20; Amplified Bible)

Sequence of Events according Genesis account!


"The fountains of the great deep burst forth." (Genesis 7:11)
"The waters increased and bore up the ark and it rose above the earth." (Genesis 7:17)
"The waters rose higher and increased greatly on the earth." (Genesis 7:18)
"The waters rose higher and higher on the earth so that all the highest mountains everywhere under the heavens were covered."

(Genesis 7:19)


"The waters rose on the earth one hundred and fifty days."

(Genesis 7:24)

The waters subsided . . ." (Genesis 8:1)
"The fountains of the deep and the floodgates of the heavens were closed." (Genesis 8:2)
"The waters steadily receded from the earth. They subsided at the end of one hundred and fifty days."

(Genesis 8:3)

"The waters continued to recede until the tenth month." (Genesis 8:5)
The phrases "the waters increased greatly," "the waters rose higher," and "the waters steadily receded" are of particular interest since daily increasing and decreasing of waters is the normal description of the tidal phenomena. Tides occur twice every 24 1/2 hours on the Earth's surface. Tides both increase and decrease continually. Hence, the waters may have been rather accurately described as increasing continually.


Genesis 7, 8

(by Donald W. Patten © Chapter 4)

Examination of the implications resting in the fact that sedimentary strata, in parallelism, occur on all continents.

This Framework (2) lists chronologically many significant observations of the Flood cataclysm. The record states that it rained 40 days and 40 nights (Genesis 7:17), but that the waters increased for 150 days (Genesis 7:24). Study the phrasing of the Genesis account of the action of the waters:

Sequence of Events...

Span of Time

There were (just) forty days during which the rain fell
(Genesis 7:12)

40 days!
Throughout another 110 days the waters continued to rise, making 150 days in all (Genesis 7:24) 110 days
The waters occupied 74 days in the "going and decreasing." This was from the 17th day of the seventh month to the 1st day of the tenth month (Genesis 8:5) 74 days
Forty days elapsed before Noah sent out the raven (Genesis 8:6-7) 40 days
Seven days elapsed before Noah sent out the dove for the first time (Genesis 8:8). This period is necessary for reaching the total and is given by implication from the phrase "other seven days" (Genesis 8:10) 7 days



Seven days passed before sending out the dove for the second time (Genesis 8:10) 7 days



Seven days more passed before the third sending of the dove (Genesis 8:12) 7 days

Up to this point 285 days are accounted for, but the next episode is dated the 1st of the first month in the 601st year. From the date in 7:11 to this point in Genesis 8:13 is a period of 314 days; therefore an interval of 29 days elapses 29 days
From the removal of the covering of the ark to the very end of the experience was a further 57 days (Genesis 8:14) 57 days

371 days!

371 days!

Source: Reprinted fromNew Bible Commentary by Davidson, Stibbs and Kevan, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1953. p. 85.

   4. World-wide Circumstances of Sedimentary Strata

With this possible tidal mechanism, immense pressures are realized, which become successive, twice daily as the Earth rotates, even as layers of sedimentary strata are successive.  Had there been tidal conditions, with water 5,000 to 10,000 feet above sea level, pressure on the Earth's crust would have amounted to perhaps 300 tons per square foot, or 2 tons per square inch. This would be sufficient pressure to compress any kind of sediment, be it sand, mud, ash or other. It would be sufficient pressure to metamorphism any of these kinds of deposits into successive strata, intermixed with occasional trapped fauna or flora, turning them not into decayed debris slowly, but turning them into suddenly and perfectly preserved fossils.

Layers of sedimentary rock, successive layer upon layer, are found on every continent, and they appear to have been laid down by immense volumes of water, and subsequently compressed by great pressures. This phenomenon, together with other data presented in this and successive chapters, makes an impressive case indeed for the possibility of global catastrophes, and of oceanic tides of sub continental proportions and of great elevations above mean sea level.

A fifth consideration in the geophysical nature of the Flood becomes apparent as one notes the phrase "fountains of the deep" the antediluvian oceans.

5. The Fountains of the Deep (Oceans)

And in the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, and the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. (Genesis 7:11, Goodspeed)

The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained; and the waters returned from off the earth continually . (Genesis 8:2-3, Goodspeed)

This phrase seemingly refers to the great oceans and seas which cover the bulk of the Earth's surface (72% in our generation). Both the fluid atmosphere (rain) and the fluid hydrosphere (oceanic tides) appear to have been simultaneously deranged, but the surging, sweeping volumes of the oceanic tides were the primary cause of the Flood. It must be noted that if all the rain that the atmosphere could hold were to condense immediately, the volume of accumulated precipitation would be less than 12 inches at any one location. In fact, if the atmosphere were composed of pure water vapor, and this suddenly condensed, it would amount to about 30 feet of water--not enough for the scope of flood which is under consideration. This would hardly be sufficient to float a small barge, much less a large one, over coastal hills and interior plateaus.

In the oceans of the Earth there are more than 200,000,000 cubic miles of water. This is enough to drown about % of the present surface of the Earth, and some of it is drowned to depths of 10,000 and 20,000 and 30,000 foot depths. If, in the event of a major conflict of gravity within the Earth-Moon system, these waters could be in tidal movement. With their volume, they could indeed cause immense surges, ample to drown even the largest of the continents. The rinsing action caused by the accompanying rains would contribute perhaps only 1/10 of 1% at most to the total Flood. Thus, the breaking up of the fountains of the deep must account for the major volume of the water involved in the Flood--some 99.9% of the water.

6. The Behavior of the Animals

They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort. And they went into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life. (Genesis 7:14-15, KJV)

Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female. (Genesis 7:2; KJV) Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth. (Genesis 7:3; KJV
Genesis 7:2 
clearly indicates there were two of the unclean animals and 7 of the clean! Seven clean pairs so that some could be sacrificed; one pair of the unclean for reproduction (Genesis 6:19; Genesis 7:2). This indicates the knowledge of clean and unclean animals before the law of Moses in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy. 14.

Clean animals would have numbered 14 or (7 pairs). It says by sevens. Sevens is plural because there are seven pairs. For unclean it says by two. The word two is singular; therefore one pair. Having 14 clean animals on board the ark would have provided animals for sacrifice, animals for reproduction and when the ark landed, animals for food. This is another reason that author did not state! When the ark landed there would not have been very much vegetation to eat if any. The food stored on the ark would have been greatly reduced. Although they may have had milk and eggs to eat. Noah and his family would probably have had to eat some of the clean animals to survive because any crops they planted would not produce food for awhile.

It is obvious then, that the Lord did not want them sacrificing or eating unclean animals. If they did, there would not be enough unclean animals to reproduce. The L-rd only provided one pair of unclean of each beast strictly for the purpose of reproduction!

Of the birds after their kind, of animals after their kind, and of every creeping thing of the earth after its kind, two of every kind will come to you, to keep them alive (Genesis 6:20)

This verse tells us that Noah didn’t have to search or travel to far away places to bring the animals on board. The animals simply arrived at the Ark as if called by a “homing instinct” (a behavior implanted in the animals by their Creator) and marched up the ramp, all by themselves!The world-map was completely different before the Flood, and on the basis of Genesis 1, there may have been only one continent!

And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg {Means "Earthquake"} ; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan. (Genesis 10:25) In his days the earth was divided into continents and islands, after the various nations were scattered abroad on all the one land at the time of the divine judgment of Genesis 11:1-9.

 Another significant part of the Flood story is the seeming apprehension of the animals just prior to the Flood catastrophe. Animals often have been observed behaving abnormally just prior to a natural catastrophe. It is as though they can comprehend or sense beforehand foreshocks of impending earthquakes.

Some examples:

For example, on the afternoon previous to the eruption of Mt. Pelee on Martinique Island in 1902, an old sheepherder had observed his sheep in unusual commotion. He made his way to the mayor of St. Pierre and warned that something dreadful was about to happen. The mayor did not take the muttering sheep-herder very seriously; however on the following day between 30,000 and 40,000 people were engulfed in pumice.

In September 1923, a severe earthquake rocked Honshu, the main island in the Japanese chain. An old Japanese priest had forecast this earthquake upon observing that a certain species of fish had been acting abnormally for months. From tradition, he knew that earthquake activity was imminent in this unstable region, known as the "Pacific Rim of Fire" where both earthquake and volcanic activity are relatively frequent.

Again, when the great earthquake occurred in Madison County, Montana, in 1959, rangers observed that birds evacuated the region on the day prior to the seismic event.

Animals spoken of in the Genesis account, domestic and probably wild ones as well, entered the Ark seven days prior to the Flood--seven days before the rain commenced and surging waters from the oceans began to heave. Apparently there were significant forewarnings, micro-vibrations or minute foreshocks of the coming catastrophe, seismic in nature!

If this suspicion is correct, then it would substantiate the principle that the Flood was tidal in perspective, the reaction to a gravitational conflict, an astral intruder being the mechanical cause. Oceans would begin to heave and surge in tidal movement; so also would the fluid magma (lava) within the crust of the Earth begin to surge, for all fluids would respond to the gravitational conflict. The surging and heaving of the more immense seas of magma within the crust would more than amply cause foreshocks, merely a preview to the approaching chaos.

We have considered a series of circumstances relative to the Flood. One or two alone would not be strongly indicative of the tidal nature of the Flood. But together, these six perspectives begin to be impressive; in fact, they are merely an introduction to the panorama of evidences which reflect this astrophysical basis for understanding the Flood. Had there been tides in the oceans above the Earth's crust, there must also have been greater tides of magma beneath the Earth's crust, rumbling around, heaving up and occasionally thrusting through the Earth's thin and fragile crust. With the great mass, weight and constriction involved, these subterranean tides of magma must have been immense in magnitude. It is to this subject that Chapter 5 is directed!

About the author Donald W. Patten & his scientifically written book!

Donald W. Patten, a geographer by training and lifelong interest, was born on November 11, 1929, in Conrad, a small town on the high plains of Montana near Glacier National Park. He entered the University of Montana in 1947 and engaged upon a series of studies including ancient history, ancient literature, climatology, genetics, geography, geomorphology, mathematics and philosophy.

While absorbing humanistic viewpoints, he also began to read the Bible, and to reflect upon its claims. In 1948, he experienced conversion to Biblical Christianity, and through a coincidence, was given pulpit duties as a student at a small, rural community church in the village of Lolo. Following his conversion, this further experience in lay preaching and teaching was a most profound influence in his young manhood, coming in the midst of his studies.

Mr. Patten received a B.A, in Geography from the University of Washington in 1951, and an M.A. in Geography in 1962. Mr. Patten and his wife Lorraine have one daughter and six sons.

The biblical flood and ice epoch was conceived in 1960, and has been generated by his interests in various fields of geography, history and science.

The Biblical Flood & The Ice Epoch

The author contends that, through the agency of astral principles, the Earth became engaged, or engulfed, in simultaneous gravitational upheavals and magnetic conflicts. There came with suddenness to our fragile, spiraling sphere, THE BIBLICAL FLOOD AND THE ICE EPOCH. Readers of this unique book will find a challenging and refreshing view of ancient catastrophism and its conclusion, Divine Creation, a subject of importance in this age of increasing intellectual rootlessness.

It is over and against the prevailing monopoly of uniformitarian thought (which proposes that oceans of time are necessary for anything and everything, both geologically and biologically) that Mr. Patten proposes his view of historical celestial crises, global catastrophes. Such catastrophes may explain many features about several planets. Such catastrophes, relative to the Earth-Moon system, explain the raising up of mountain ranges, sweeping across the face of the Earth in arcuate alignment, similar to the mountain patterns of the Moon.

This was achieved suddenly, and by tidal upheavals within the oceans (of centrifugally rotating lava) within the Earth's crust. Simultaneously, tidal upheavals engulfing the oceans raised tides of subcontinental dimensions on the Earth's crust, thus the historically recorded Deluge, or Flood. 

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by  Professor Donald W. Patten ©; Copyright 1964,
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